Minggu, 31 Maret 2019

The Role of Anti-Corruption Education
in Creating Civil Society in Indonesia By: Prof. Dr. Endang Komara, M.Sc. (Professor of Educational Sociology in
STKIP Pasundan and Chair of the ASPENSI Expert Council)

Anti-corruption education aims to establish awareness of the dangers of corruption, then rose to oppose it, promoting the values of honesty and not easily give it up for the good. Anti-corruption education, should be managed as a container dialog to grow the collective consciousness of every citizen of the importance of the eradication and prevention of corruption. Civil society as a process of creation of the civilization that refers to a shared policy values such as democracy, upholding the ethics and morals, transparent, tolerant, potentially, aspirated, motivated people, participate, consistent, able to coordinate, simple, synchronous, integral and uphold human rights 
Keywords: Roles, Education, Anti-corruption, Community, Madani.

In the development of criminal acts of corruption, both in terms of quantity and quality, it can be said that corruption in Indonesia is no longer an ordinary crime, but is already a crime that is extraordinarily. Internationally, corruption is recognized as a very complex, systemic and widespread problem. The Center for Crime Prevention (CICP) as one of the organs of the United Nations broadly defines corruption as a missus of (public) power for private gain. This means that corruption has a broad dimension of action, including criminal acts bribery, embezzlement, fraud, extortion, abuse of power, exploiting a conflict interest, insider trading, nepotism, illegal commission, and illegal contributions of money to political parties. As a world problem, corruption is a transnational crime. Therefore, given the complexity and negative effects, corruption categorized as an extra ordinary crime requires an eradication effort with an extra ordinary measure.
For the Indonesian people, corruption is a chronic disease almost without remedy, infiltrated in all aspects of life and appears to be an image of the bad culture of the Indonesian people. Cynically, people can say that Indonesian identity is a corrupt behavior, both carried out by the executive, the legislature and the private sector. The image is not entirely true in reality, the complexity of corruption is felt not merely a legal problem, but a violation of the economic and social rights of society. Corruption has caused great poverty and social inequality. The community cannot enjoy equal distribution of development outcomes and does not enjoy the rights that should be obtained. Overall corruption has weakened the social and economic security of the Indonesian people.
Eradicating corruption is not just the aspiration of the wider community, but is an urgent need for the Indonesian people to prevent and eliminate it from the motherland. Thus, law enforcement in eradicating corruption is expected to reduce and broadly eliminate poverty. The aim of eradicating criminal acts of corruption is to realize the welfare of the Indonesian people who have suffered greatly because of increasingly rampant corruption.
In an educational perspective, every human being has the potential to develop and develop potential within him. Efforts are considered effective for developing this potential, namely educational activities. According to Hasan Langgulung (1987), education can be seen from two perspectives, namely individual and social perspectives. Based on an individual's perspective, education is an effort to develop individual potential. The social viewpoint of education is inheriting cultural values by the older generation to the younger generation, so that these values can be preserved. Education guides people to become more mature people intellectually, morally, and socially, in this case education is a cultural preserver. Thus, education can be seen as a preventive effort for the development of corrupt attitudes and behavior.
Viewed from the substantive, education as stated in Law No. 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System, it can be deemed appropriate to improve the nation's ethical resilience through social reforms that become the trigger for institutional reform. These institutional reforms can protect externally the possibility of corrupt practices, the development of corrupt behavior, and ultimately can improve the law and its enforcement and improve the quality of human resources. In this context, eradicating corruption through an educational perspective is very important.
Education is an important instrument in national development, both as a developer and enhancer of national productivity as well as forming national character (religious values, nationalism, mutual cooperation, integrity and independence). Regardless of the problem of corruption as a culture or not, the role of education can help increase community resilience in facing and eradicating corruption in Indonesia.
In addition, education is an appropriate means or response to improve the nation's ethical resilience through social reform that can be a trigger for institutional reform. External institutional reforms can guard against the possibility of corrupt behavior, and internal community reform can protect the possibility of growing and developing corrupt behavior. All of this can improve the law (institutional aspects) and improve human quality. In this context, education becomes very important. It is proper for the Government to make anti-corruption education as compulsory education taught in all schools and higher education in Indonesia. The Minister of Education and Culture, Minister of Religion and the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education can arrange a curriculum that accommodates it, both persuasive, analytical and repressive strategies. This is very urgent because there have been many corruption cases that are revealed every day in Indonesia.
Improving the government bureaucracy system and anti-corruption education are two very powerful things in combating corruption. With these two things being done continuously, Indonesia's future will be free from corruption. Corruption is a parasite for the Indonesian people, and the Indonesian people will be more advanced without corruption.
The concept of civil society is defined as the concept of Madani society, where the social system in civil society is taken from the history of the Prophet Muhammad as the leader who built high civilization by establishing the City of Medina and laying the foundations of civil society by outlining the provisions for living together in a document known as the Medina Charter (Mitsaq al-Madinah). The idealism of Madinah's community structure is based on the success of the Prophet in practicing and realizing the values of justice, equality, freedom, law enforcement and guarantees for the welfare of all citizens and protection of the weak and minority groups, although the existence of Madani society is only temporary but historically giving an important meaning as an example for the realization of the ideal society in the future to build the same life order, therefore the community order of Medina that had been built by the Prophet was qualitatively seen by some Muslim intellectuals as parallel to the concept of civil society.
Basically, the Madani society exemplified by the Prophet is a total reformation of the people who only recognize the supremacy of a king's personal power as long as this has become a general understanding of the state.
According to Nurcholis Madjid (1996), the word "Medina" comes from the Arabic "Madaniyah" which means civilization. Therefore, Madani society is associated with a civilized society. Nurcholis Madjid explained that the term Madani society refers to an Islamic community that was once built by the Prophet in Medina, namely an area called Yastrib which was later changed to Madinah which was in essence a statement of intention to establish and build a civilized society based on Islamic teachings and devoted people to God Almighty in that city. The basic characteristics of the community built by the Prophet are egalitarianism, respect for people based on achievement (not ethnicity, descent and race), openness of participation of all members of the community, law enforcement and justice, tolerance and pluralism and deliberation.

The Role of Anti-Corruption Education
Education is a pillar of character development, in order to prepare a new generation of anti-corruption. The development of an anti-corruption culture is through the implementation of anti-corruption education at every level of regional education based on government regulations, including:
a.    Decree of the People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia Number 11 of 1998 concerning the Implementation of a Clean and Free of Corruption, Collusion and Nepotism;
b.    Law Number 31 of 1999 concerning the Implementation of Clean and Free Countries of Corruption, Collusion and Nepotism;
c.    Law Number 31 of 1999 concerning Eradication of Corruption Crime;
d.    Law Number 28 of 1999 concerning State Administrators that Are Clean and Free of Corruption, Collusion and Nepotism;
e.    Instruction of the President of the Republic of Indonesia Number 5 of 2004 concerning the Acceleration of Eradication of Corruption;
f.     Law Number 30 of 2002 Article 13 concerning the Corruption Eradication Commission has the authority to organize anti-corruption education programs at every level of education.
Eradication of corruption must be systematic and massive. Anti-corruption education is a conscious means for that. Anti-corruption education should touch cognitive, affective, and conative aspects. The main purpose of anti-corruption education is a change in attitudes and behavior towards corrupt actions. Anti-corruption education also aims to create awareness of the dangers of corruption, then rise up against it, promote honesty values and not give up easily for good. Anti-corruption education should be managed as a forum for dialogue to grow the collective awareness of every citizen towards the importance of eradicating and preventing corruption.
According to Salahudin (2018: 242-243), there are two goals to be achieved from anti-corruption education, namely:
a.    Instill anti-corruption spirit in every nation child. Through this education, the anti-corruption spirit will flow in the blood of each generation and be reflected in daily actions. Thus, the work of building a nation that is delayed due to corruption does not occur again in the future;
b.    Build values and develop the capacity needed to form student civilian positions in fighting corruption.
Thus, eradicating corruption is not only the responsibility of law enforcement agencies, such as the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK), the Police and the Attorney General's Office, but the responsibility of every citizen of Indonesia.
The application of anti-corruption values in schools includes: First, honesty. The word honest can be defined as being upright, not lying, and not cheating. Without honesty, an individual will not be trusted in his social life. The value of honesty in education can be realized in the form of not doing academic fraud. For example, do not cheat and do not fake values. The value of honesty can also be realized in the student council activities. For example, to make financial statements of committee activities honestly. One way to practice honesty in school is the honesty canteen, which is a canteen in which there is no canteen or cashier guard so that the buyer must take his own food and drinks that have been given a price tag, then settle the payment themselves. The buyer puts the money according to the price that must be paid in the money box provided. If there is a change, he takes it himself from the money box. If there is not enough change, he can make a small note given to the canteen manager to ask for the change.
The canteen can be a place of learning for the younger generation about the importance of honesty with oneself, which will eventually lead to the generation of a generation that respects honesty while creating a generation of anti-corruption culture.
Second, be responsible. According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary, being responsible is a condition that must bear everything. Being responsible also means daring to admit mistakes and be prepared for all the consequences. Practicing responsibilities can be done by: 1) complying with all the rules applied by the school, both written and unwritten; 2) work on every assignment given by the teacher or assignment from schoolmates, do not delay work and do not look for scapegoats if they make mistakes in doing their assignments. The core responsibility is trustworthy; 3) mandate for the position given by the school, for example as chairman of the Intra-School Student Organization (OSIS) and class leader.
Third, discipline. The word definition of discipline is obedience to regulations. In managing life, both academically and socially, students need to live disciplined. Life discipline for students is able to manage and manage the time available to complete tasks, both in academic and social spheres. The benefits of disciplined life are students achieving their life goals with a more efficient time.
Fourth, simple. Simple lifestyles are developed since students get their education. With a simple lifestyle, each student is accustomed to not living lavishly. Simple lifestyle does not mean synonymous with poverty. Simple means not excessive in living life.
Fifth, work hard. Working hard is based on the willingness. In the word "will" contained perseverance, perseverance, endurance, work power, stance, courage, fortitude, perseverance, and unyielding. Working hard is an important thing to achieve results in accordance with the target.
Sixth, independent. Being independent for students can be interpreted as a process of maturing oneself, that is, by not relying on other people to do tasks and be responsible. Independent nature begins with working on one's own tasks, solving problems without involving parents. Seventh, fair. Based on the meaning of the word, fair is equally heavy, not biased and impartial. For students, characters need to be nurtured so that they can learn to consider and make decisions fairly and correctly. Fair does not have to generalize everything, but put and respond to everything in its proper place. Eighth, brave. Students need courage to succeed. The courage of students will be more mature if accompanied by their beliefs. Confidence will be strong if the knowledge is also strong. Dare to take risks to do something, of course must be accompanied by responsibility. Ninth, as a prospective future leader, a student needs to have a sense of concern for his environment. Students are required to care about the teaching and learning process in schools, management of resources in schools, and various things that develop in schools.

Madani Society
Madani society or civil society is one form of the ideal concept towards democracy, if it is already realized, Madani society has an indication that is in line with the perspective of civil society today.
In general, Madani society can be interpreted as a society or institution that has characteristics including: independence, tolerance, self-reliance, willingness to help one another and upholding the norms and ethics agreed upon together (Syamsuddin, 2017). Historically efforts to pioneer these institutions have emerged since the Indonesian people began to recognize modern education and the global capitalism system and modernization which raised awareness to establish modern organizations such as Budi Utomo (1908), Syarikat Dagang Islam (1911), Muhammadiyah (1912), etc.
According to U.S. perspective Hikam (1996), civil society is a discourse originating from the West and closer to its substance if it is still mentioned in the original term without translating with other terms or still adhering to the concept of de 'Tocquiville,is an organized social area that has characteristics such as: voluntary, self-generating, self-supporting, and high self-reliance dealing with the state and linkages with legal norms or values followed by its citizens. Civil Society is a region that guarantees the continuity of behavior and independent reflection and is not constrained by material conditions and is not absorbed in official political institutions.
The large number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that have the power to position themselves in relation to government policy is a manifestation of civil society. The state is not too strong in curbing the political, economic, and cultural empowerment movements or on the contrary supports as long as it is still within the legal corridor carried out by NGOs, this is an indication of the formation of civil society.
As explained above, the substance of Madani society and civil society has many, although not all, similarities, or the characteristics of both are not significantly different. Groups that tend to use the term Madani society emphasize that one characteristic is the existence of a law-abiding, just society, and the existence of a check and balance relationship between the state and the community (Azra, 2004).
The description of the shape of the future society that is desired by mankind who recognizes human dignity and rights are their rights and obligations in society, namely Madani society, can also be explained by the following characteristics:
First, people who recognize the nature of humanity that not only fills their need for life (the humanization process) but to exist as a human being. Second, the recognition of living with humans as social beings through state means. The state guarantees and opens up conducive opportunities so that its members can develop to realize themselves in a vertical order (between humans and God) or horizontal order (human with human). The interaction of the two orders is important because without orientation to God, the order of life together is meaningless. God is the source of value that governs the whole of human life. Third, people who recognize these characteristics and recognize human rights in a democratic life are what are called Madani society (civil society).
The universal and particularized values possessed by Madani society described in each culture of society must be realized in every individual in society. Prerequisites that become universal values in the enforcement of civil society cannot be separated because it is an integral whole and becomes the basis and the value of its existence is free public sphere, democratic, pluralism, social justice and civilization.

Based on some of the explanations above, the following can be concluded:
A.   Some of the cultural principles of anti-corruption that must be applied in schools are: First, accountability is the compatibility between rules and implementation of work. Clear work standards are needed in the form of basic tasks and functions, performance evaluation through examination of lesson plan documents, class visits by the principal, and individual consultation with teachers and principals. In its implementation, accountability must be measured and accounted for through a reporting mechanism and accountability for all activities carried out. Second, transparency. Eradication of corruption starts from transparency and requires that all policy processes be carried out openly so that all forms of irregularities can be known to the public. The principle of transparency can be applied by students in life in school. For example, the OSIS activity program which reports its activities must be accessible to all students, even parents of students. With the school website, everyone can access funds and policies taken by the school quickly and completely.
B.    The pillar of Madani society enforcers is an institution that is part of a social control that serves to criticize the policies of the discriminatory authorities and be able to fight for the aspirations of the oppressed people and these pillars become an absolute prerequisite for the realization of the strength of civil society, the pillar is a non-governmental organization (NGO), the press, the rule of law, universities and political parties.

Azra, Azzumardi. 2004. Menuju Masyarakat Madani: Gagasan Fakta dan Tantangan. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya.
Hikan, Muhammad A.S. 1996. Demokrasi dan Civil Society. Jakarta: LP3ES.
Madjid, Nurcholis. 1996. Menuju Masyarakat Madani. Dalam Jurnal Ulumul Qur’an No. 2/VII/1996. Hal. 51-55.
Salahudin, Anas. 2018. Pendidikan Antikorupsi: Pengantar. Bandung: Pustaka Setia. 
Syamsuddin, M. Din. 2017. Etika dalam Membangun Masyarakat Madani. Jakarta: Mizan.


Prinsip dasar manajemen adalah mengelola sumberdaya organisasi baik human resources maupun sarana, lingkungan dan keuangan yang ada secara efektif dan efisien untuk mencapai sasaran dan tujuan organisasi. Fungsi manajemen meliputi; merencanakan, mengorganisasi, menempatkan orang, mengarahkan dan mengontrol. Empat hal penting dalam peningkatan mutu pendidikan, pertama,kebijakan yang berlaku secara nasional yang meliputi kurikulum, ujian nasional, distribusi dan rekrutmen guru. Kedua,kepemimpinan kepala sekolah meliputi transparansi keuangan, hubungan ekosistem berjalan di sekolah antara guru dengan kepala sekolah, orang tua dengan guru, mupun dengan siswa dan seluruh tenaga kependidikan yang ada di satuan pendidikan. Ketiga, infrastruktur meliputi sarana dan prasarana terkait dengan kelas, laboratorium, maupun teknologi informasi dan komunikasi. Keempat,proses pembelajaran yang menyenangkan, berinovasi dan kreativitas, potensi, kecakapan dan kemampuan guru.
Kata kunci: Prinsip, Dasar Manajemen, Peningkatan, Mutu Pendidikan.

Lembaga yang menyelenggarakan pendidikan, tidak dapat mengabaikan pertimbangan mutu dalam melaksanakan program kegiatan pendidikannya. Karena di dalamnya, terdapat perencanaan dan implementasi kebijakan-kebijakan kependidikan yang ditetapkan berdasarkan pertimbangan visi dan misi lembaga. Pada akhirnya mutu pendidikan berkenaan dengan apa yang dihasilkan dan siapa pemakai pendidikan.
Pengertian terakhir ini merujuk pada nilai tambah, yakni apa yang diberikan oleh pendidikan, pihak-pihak yang terlibat dalam proses pendidikan, dan pihak yang menikmati hasil-hasil pendidikan. Secara substantif. Menurut Sanusi (2009), mutu mengandung sifat dan taraf. Sifat yang dimaksud adalah sesuatu yang menerangkan keadaan atau kondisi. Sedangkan taraf menunjukkan kedudukan dalam skala.
Mutu jasa atau layanan dalam dunia pendidikan, berbeda dimensinya dengan barang produksi. Dimensi mutu pada jasa atau layanan, terdiri dari kepercayaan (relibality), kepastian (assurance), kemudahan (access), komunikasi (communication(, kepekaan (responsiveness), kesopanan (courtecy), memiliki sikap, perasaan dan pikiran yang sama dengan orang lain (emphaty) dan nyata (tangible).
Manajemen kulaitas (quality management) dan manajemen mutu terpadu (total quality management), merupkan salah satu cara meningkatkan kinerja secara berkelanjutan (continuous performance improvement). Hal tersebut diperoleh dengan menggunakan sumber daya manusia, dan modal yang tersedia pada setiap level operasi dan proses, setiap fungsional dari suatu organisasi (Gaspersz, 2013:6). Peningkatan kualitas (quality improvement) merupakan tanggung jawab semua level manajement. Akan tetapi, pemegang kendali adalah manajemen puncak (top management). Namun, dalam penerapannya, harus melibatkan semua komponen organisasi pada setiap hirarki.
Dunia pendidikan dipersepsikan sebagai industri layanan jasa, bukan industri produk barang. Oleh sebab itu jasa layanan, dipastikan memiliki pelanggan (customers), baik customers internal maupun customers external. Karenanya, istilah mutu terpadu pendidikan dikenal dengan Total Quality Education (TQE).
Mendefinisikan hal yang disebut terakhir,Sallis (1993:14) menjelaskan, ‘’Situation with a set of practical tools for meeting and exceeding presentand future customers need, wants and expectation’’. Definisi ini menekankan pada dua konsep utama, pertama sebagai filosofi perbaikan terus-menerus (continuous improvement), dan kedua, berhubungan dengan alat-alat dan teknik yang digunakan untuk perbaikan kualitas, dalam rangka mememnuhi kebutuhan dan harapan pelanggan (customers).
Manajemen mutu dalam pendidikan, artinya mengutamakan dan memuaskan pelajar. Caranya, dengan menciptakan suasana pendidikan yang kreatif dan konstruktif. Penekanan yang paling penting, dapat berupa perubahan kultur sekolah, sehingga aplikasinya dapat terwujud Total Quality School (TQS). Aplikasi konsep Manajemen Mutu Terpadu dalam pendidikan, harus disesuaikan dengan sifat dasar sekolah. Dalam hal ini, sekolah sebagai organisasi jasa layanan kemanusiaan, (perbaikan potensi peserta didik) melalui pengembangan proses pembelajaran yang berkualitas. Tujuannya, agar melahirkan lulusan yang sesuai dengan tuntutan dan harapan pelanggan.
Selain sebagai institusi penyelenggaran pendidikan, sekolah juga merupakan institusi sosial. Sebagai institusi sosial, sekolah bertugas menjalankan proses enkulturasi masyarakat, yang bertumpu pada aktivitas pembelajaran. Dengan kata lain, sekolah merupakan agent of social change. Perubahan budaya organisasi sekolah diperlukan, agar sekolah memiliki keseimbangan antara stabilitas dan kemajuan. Bahkan sekolah diharapkan mampu menciptakan keuntungan kompetitif (competitive advantages) dengan mutu yang tinggi. Para ahli manajemen, telah banyak mengemukakan berbagai konsep manajemen mutu terpadu. Sallis (1993:13) mendefinisikan sebagai total quality management is philosophy and methodology which assists institution to manage change and to set their own agendas for dealing external presseures. Pendapat ini menyatakan bahwa manajemen mutu terpadu merupakan filosofi, sekaligus metodologi yang membantu suatu institusi dalam mengelola perubahan, dan menyusun agenda untuk meghadapi tekanan-tekanan faktor eksternal.
Konsep tersebut menekankan pada aspek ‘’totalitas’’ yang mempunyai konotasi seluruh system. Baik proses, personil, termasuk pemakai produk atau jasa dan supplier.Dengan kata lain, konsep ini menitikberatkan pada proses yang komprehensif, dalam rangka pemuasan customers (pelanggan). Manajemen mutu terpadu adalah pendekatan strategis dan praktis organisasi, yang berfokus pada kepentingan konsumen atau klien. Di dalam manajemen mutu terdapat inovasi yang konstan, perubahan program, penekanan pada program tertentu, kualitas manajer, tanggung jawab, dan kebabasan berkreasi dalam kerangka kerja serta kejelasan tujuan.
Manajemen mutu terpadu, sangat erat kaitannya dengan perubahan budaya. Perubahan budaya dalam hal perubahan sikap dan metode kerja. Ada dua hal penting dalam perubahan ini. Pertama, kebutuhan akan staf di dalam dan di luar lingkungan kerja; dan kedua, sikap kerja yang didukung oleh latar belakang pendidikan dan lingkungan budaya untuk mencapai keberhasilan kerja. Produk yang bermutu, berawal dari memahami filosofi mutu yang diterapkan dalam manajemen mutu terpadu. Dalam konteks pendidikan, perlu dipahami terlebih dahulu bahwa lembaga pendidikan pada dasarnya industri jasa. Melalui pelayanan yang memuaskan pelanggan, diharapkan dapat menambah keuntungan dan manfaat dalam berbagai bentuk.
Selain itu, perlu dipahami pula, bahwa produk lembaga pendidikan adalah jasa kependidikan. Standar mutunya adalah kesesuaian sifat-sifat produknya dengan kebutuhan para pelanggannya. Maka, untuk menghasilkan produk bermutu, maka sistem dan proses harus mendapat perhatian utama. Manajemen mutu terpadu memiliki sifat feksibel. Tiap organisasi dapat mewujudkannya dengan caranya sendiri, yang berbeda dengan yang lain. Dengan kata lain, dan dapat diadaptasikan sedemikian rupa untuk memenuhi kebutuhan dan lingkungan, khusus setiap lembaga, baik yang besar maupun yang kecil. Oleh sebab itu, tidak ada suatu literatur yang membahas mengenai bagaimana suatu lembaga mencapai mutu yang menyeluruh untuk lembaga itu sendiri.

Secara etimologis dijelaskan bahwa manajemen berasal dari Bahasa perancis kuno management yang berarti seni melaksanakan dan mengatur. Ricky W. Griffin dalam Suparlan (2013:41) menjelaskan bahwa manajemen tidak lain adalah sutu proses perencanaan (planning), pengorganisasian (organizing), pelaksanaan (actuating), pengkoordinasian (coordinating), dan pengontrolan (controlling) sumber daya untuk mencapai sasaran (goals) secara efektif dan efisien. Efektif berarti tujuan dapat dicapai sesuai dengan rencana yang telah ditetapkan, sedangkan  efisien berarti tugas yang ada dilaksanakan secara benar, terorganisasi dengan baik, serta sesuai dengan jadwal yang telah ditentukan.
Istilah startegi berasal dari Bahasa Latin, yakni strategos. Pada awalnya strategos merujuk pada kegiatan seorang jenderal militer yang mengkombinasikan stratos (militer) dengan ego (memimpin). Strategi di sini berarti sebagai kegiatan memimpin militer dalam melaksanakan tugas-tugasnya (Sudjana, 2004:93).
Menurut Hornby (1983:854) menyatakan, strategi adalah the art of planning operation in war, skill in managing any affair, tactic. Istilah strategi digunakan dalam dunia militer yakni seni merencanakan berbagai operasi perang. Nickols (200) menyebutkan strategy often refers to maneuvering troops into position before the enemy is actually engaged. Strategi juga berhubungan dengan penyebaran (deplopment) prajurit, pada suatu posisi yang strategis sebelum musuh mengetahuinya.
Pada saat musuh mulai mengetahuinya atau melawan, perhatian dialihkan kepada taktik. Oleh karena itu, menurut Hart dalak Nickols (2000), strategy is the art of the employment of battles as a means to gain the object of war. Strategi juga dapat didefinisikan sebagai keterampilan atau taktik dalam mengelola kegiatan. Definisi tersebut menjadi dasar dari pengertian strategi yang diadaptasi dari pemakaian konsep strategi berkembang pada organisasi bisnis, organisasi nirlaba, dan sektor publik, seperti halnya pendidikan dan kesehatan.
Menurut Byars (1991:13) penggunaan konsep strategi dalam organisasi bisnis, diawali dengan mengkonversi tentara menjadi sumber daya. Dalam perkembangannya hingga saat ini, kata strategi sendiri dipakai untuk menerangkan tahapan yang dilakukan oleh organisasi dalam mencapai sasaran dan misinya.
Keputusan strategic sangat menentukan keberhasilan suatu lembaga dalam pencapaian misi, karena itu, sebuah keputusan strategi haruslah memenuhi beberapa karakteristik, antara lain: Pertama, keputusan strategic yang mencakup keseluruhan komponen organisasi, yang dapat dilakukan oleh manajemen puncak hingga karyawan. Kedua, keputusan strategik mempunyai daya dukung sumber-sumber yang cukup, baik Sumber Daya Manusia, finansial maupun informasi lainnya. Ketiga, keputusan strategik harus berdampak jangka panjang.
Perkembangan bidang pendidikan menggambarkan misi strategic dijalankan. Pemerataan pendidikan semakin dirasakan bahwa pembangunan sekolah memiliki fungsi strategis bagi peningkatan kualitas warga negara, serta harkat dan martabat bangsa Indonesia. Upaya memperbaiki mutu pendidikan bangsa yang berkelanjutan memerlukan integrase. Maksudnya, antara pendidikan dasar, pendidikan menengah, perguruan tinggi, serta pendidikan luar sekolah, diintegrasikan untuk menjadi pusat keunggulan (center of excellence).
Lulusan lembaga pendidikan, merupakan Sumber Daya Manusia yang menjadi subjek dan objek pembangunan. Oleh sebab itu, semua jalur pendidikan dalam fungsi dan proses aktivitasnya, harus bermuara pada pencapaian tujuan pendidikan nasional. Tujuan tersebut, sebagaimana termaktub dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional, yaitu mencerdaskan dan mengembangkan manusia Indonesia seutuhnya, yaitu manusia yang beriman dan bertakwa kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, dan berbudi pekerti luhur, memiliki poengetahuan dan keterampilan, kesehatan jasmani dan rohani, kepribadian yang mantap dan mandiri, serta rasa tanggung jawab kemasyarakatan dan kebangsaan.
Pemberdayaan masyarakat ditandai dengan beberapa hal. Misalnya, sehat fisik dan mental, terdidik dan kuat, dan memiliki nilai-nilai intrinsic sebagai sumber keberdayaan. Nilai intrinsic tersebut misalnya sifat-sifat kekeluargaan, kegotong royongan, dan keragaman atau kebhinekaan. Menurut Adi (2008:285-313) ada beberapa asset komunitas sebagai indicator yang perlu untuk dipahami dalam proses pemberdayaan, antara lain: Pertama, Modal manusia (Human Capital). Modal ini mewakili unsur pengetahuan, perspektif, mentalitas, keahlian, pendidikan, kemampuan kerja, dan kondisi masyarakat yang berguna untuk meningkatkan kualitas hidup masyarakat. Kedua, modal fisik (Physical Capital). Modal ini mewakili unsur bangunan, seperti perumahan, pasar, sekolah, rumah sakit dan sebagainya; dan infrastruktur dasar, seperti jalan, jembatan, jaringan air minum, jaringan telepon, dan sebagainya yang merupakan sarana yang membantu masyarakat untuk meningkatkan kualitas hidupnya. Ketiga, modal finansial (Financial Capital). Modal ini mewakili unsur sumber-sumber keuangan yang ada di masyarakat, seperti penghasilan, tabungan, pendanaan regular, pinjaman modal usaha, sertifikat surat berharga, saham, dan sebagainya yang dapat dimanfaatkan untuk menunjang derajat kehidupan masyarakat. Keempat, modal teknologi (Technological Capital). Modal ini mewakili system atau peranti lunak (software) yang melelnbgkapi modal fisik, seperti teknologi pengairan sawah, teknologi penyaringan air, teknologi pangan, teknologi cetak jarak jauh dan berbagai teknologi lainnya yang dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat. Kelima,  modal lingkungan (Environmental Capital). Modal ini mewakili Sumber Daya Alam dan sumber daya hayati yang melingkupi suatu masyarakat. Kelima, modal sosial (Social Capital). Modal ini mewakili sumber daya sosial, seperti jaringan sosial, kepercayaan masyarakat, ikatan sosial dan sebagainya yang bermanfaat untuk membantu masyarakat memenuhi kebutuhan hidupnya.
Sehubungan dengan pendapat di atas, menurut Hikmat (2001:21), upaya pemberdayaan masyarakat perlu memperhatikan sedikitnya empat unsur pokok, antara lain: Pertama,aksesibilitas informasi, karena informasi merupakan kekuasaan baru yang berhubungan dengan peluang, layanan, penegakan huku, dan efektivitas negosiasi.Kedua, keterlibatan partisipasi, yang menyangkut siapa yang dilibatkan, dan bagaimana dilibatkan dalam keseluruhan proses pembangunan. Ketiga, akuntabilitas, yang berhubungan dengan pertanggungjawaban publik atas segala kegiatan yang dilakukan dengan mengatasnamakan rakyat. Keempat,kapasitas organisasi local, yang berhubungan dengan kemampuan bekerja sama, mengorganisasi warga masyarakat, serta memobilisasi sumber daya untuk memecahkan masalah yang dihadapi.
Mengacu pada Service First the New Character Programme, yang terkenal di Inggris, terdapat 9 (Sembilan) prinsip penyediaan pelayanan. Prinsip-prinsip tersebut meliputi: menentukan standar pelayanan; bersikap terbuka dan menyediakan informasi  selengkap-lengkapnya; berkonsultasi dan terlibat; mendorong akses pilihan; memperlakukan semua secara adil; mengembalikan ke jalan yang benar ketika terjadi kesalahan; memanfaatkan sumber daya secara efektif; inovatif dan memperbaiki; dan bekerjasama dengan penyedia layanan lainnya.
Standar pelayanan menjadi faktor kunci dalam upaya meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan. Upaya penyediaan pelayanan yang berkualitas, antara lain dapat dilakukan dengan memperhatikan ukuran-ukuran apa saja yang menjadi kriteria kinerja pelayanan.

Berdasarkan beberapa penjelasan di atas, maka dapat disimpulkan hal-hal sebagai berikut:
Manajemen mutu terpadu adalah pendekatan strategis dan praktis organisasi, yang berfokus pada kepentingan konsumen atau klien. Di dalam manajemen mutu terdapat inovasi yang konstan, perubahan program, penekanan pada program tertentu, kualitas manajer, tanggung jawab, dan kebebasan berkreasi dalam kerangka kerja serta kejelasan tujuan.
Manajemen mutu terpadu, sangat erat kaitannya dengan perubahan budaya. Perubahan budaya dalam hal perubahan sikap dan metode kerja. Ada dua hal penting dalam perubahan ini: Pertama, kebutuhan akan staf di dalam dan di luar lingkungan kerja; dan kedua, sikap kerja yang didukung olehlatar belakang pendidikan dan lingkungan budaya untuk mencapai keberhasilan kerja.
Produk yang bermutu, berawal dari memahami filosofi mutu yang diterapkan dalam manajemen mutu terpadu. Dalam konteks pendidikan, perlu dipahami terlebih dahulu bahwa lembaga pendidikan pada dasarnya industry jasa. Melalui pelayanan yang memuaskan pelanggan, diharapkan dapat menambah keuntungan dan manfaat dalam berbagai bentuk. Selain itu, perlu dipahami pula, bahwa produk lembaga pendidikan adalah jasa kependidikan. Standar mutunya adalah kesesuaian sifat-sifat produknya dengan kebutuhan para pelanggannya. Maka untuk menghasilakn produk bermutu, maka sistem dan proses harus mendapat perhatian utama.
Standar pelayanan dalam bidang pendidikan, meliputi kriteria pelayanan antara lain: kesederhanaan, reliabilitas, tanggung jawab, kecakapan, pendekatan dan kemudahan, keramahan, keterbukaan, komunikasi, kredibilitas, kejelasan dan kepastian, keamanan, kenyataan, efisien dan ekonomi untuk menilai keberhasilan manajemen layanan pendidikan yang dilakukan di sekolah.


Adi. 2008. Motivasi Kepemimpinan dan Efektivitas Kelompok. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Byars, H., Caldwell, B.J. and Milikan, R.H. 1991. Creating An Excellent School: Some New Management Techniques. London – New York: Routledge-Chapman and Hall, Inc.

Gaspersz,Vincent. 2013. All-in-one Integrated Total Quality Talent Management. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.  

Hikmat, R. Harry. 2001. Strategi Pemberdayaan Masyarakat. Bandung: Humaniora Utama Press (HUP).

Hornby, A.S. 1983. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Oxford: O.U.P.

Nickols, F.  200. Communities of Practice: A Start-Up Kit. The Distance Consulting Comapany.

Sallis, Edward. 1993. Total Quality Management in Education. London: Kogan Page.

Sudjana, Nana. 2004. Landasan Psikologi Pendidikan. Jakarta: Remaja Rosdakarya

Suparlan. 2013. Manajemen Berbasis Sekolah (dari Teori sampai dengan Praktek). Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Uninus. 2009. Spiral dynamic (Apresiasi Sejawat pada Pemikiran Prof. Dr. Achmad Sanusi). Bandung: Nusantara Education Review, Program Pascasarjana Uninus.

Minggu, 24 Maret 2019


Generation of literacy is the ability of individuals to use all the potential and skill possessed on his life. Literacy is also a tool for developing the character and competence of future generations. The goal is to equip the nation's generation with life skills.
Values, moral, and character education are to develop the ability of learners to give good decisions, to maintain goodness and to realize that goodness in his life.
The purpose of character education is to develop the character of the nation in order to be able to realize the values of Pancasila. Character education as a basic of national awakening, getting the achievement and uphold the moral character.
Keywords: Generation, literacy, strengthening, education, character, and nation.

I. Introduction
Education is the power to promote the growth of character, intellectualism and the literacy skill. It should not be separated in order to advance of the child's life. Generation of literacy is the ability of individuals to use all the potential and skill possessed in his life. Also literacy is a tool to develop the character and competence of future generations. The purpose of literacy to equip the nation's generation with life skills.
In line with this, the literacy skills developed by Kemendikbud (2017) include the ability to adapt to a dynamic environment; ability to solve complex problems; and the ability to apply basic daily skills by enhancing creativity, critical thinking, communicative and collaborative.
The types of literacy currently being developed by Kemendikbud include language and literature, numeracy, science, ICT, finance, culture and citizenship. First, language literacy is the ability to read and write, literacy that includes the ability to read and write, the ability to process and understand information while doing the process of reading and writing. Second, numeracy is the ability to solve problems, explain the process and analyse information related to numeration. A person is called a numeracy literature if it knows the basics of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division; can use the concept of numeracy confidently and effectively; can understand how to transfer the skills they have to solve the problem. Third, science literacy is the ability to use science knowledge, identify questions, draw conclusions in order to understand and make decisions related to nature; a person is called a literate on science, if it has the competence to explain the phenomenon of science, evaluate and design knowledge and skills of science independently, and interpret data and evidence of science. Fourth, digital literacy is the ability to use digital media, communication tools or networks to find, evaluate, use, create information and make good use of it; features that covered computer basics, internet usage and productive programs, security and confidentiality, and digital lifestyle. Fifth, financial literacy is the ability to understand how money affects the world (how one manages to make money, manages money, invests money and donates money to help others, a series of processes or activities to increase the knowledge, beliefs and skills of consumers and society so they able to manage finances well. Sixth, cultural and civic literacy is the ability to understand, appreciate and participate skilfully in culture, ability to participate actively and initiate change in community and larger social environment.
National Literacy Movement should get support from all parties, for example by one teacher one book (reading), family literacy movement, school literacy movement, community literacy movement, cultural literacy movement and nation literasi movement. The objectives of the National Literacy Movement are: First, build a culture of literacy. Second, Preparing the golden generation of Indonesia on 2045. Third, strengthening character education as the spirit and the foundation of education through harmonization of ethics, aesthetic, and literacy, and kinesthetic. Fourth, revitalize and strengthen the capacity of the educational ecosystem. Fifth, preserve the Indonesian culture and identity in support of the National Movement of the Mental Revolution.
The challenges faced by the nation's literacy generation include: First, the literacy culture of Indonesian society is still low. It is the fact, for example; the Central Connecticut State University (2016) Survey results is Indonesia ranked 60th out of 61 countries. PISA Score (reading) Indonesia is ranked 64th out of 72 countries. INAP scores still show less categories. Indonesian public reading index is only 0.001. Cybercrime cases in 2016 as many as 1207 cases (defamation, hoax and others). Second, the limited number, access and quality of reading material quality. Third, build synergies and roles between all stakeholders. Fourth, build a literacy support facility in the public space. Fifth, the globalization.
 Generation of literacy is believed by the advanced society as a very important need for every human being as a citizen of the world society is moving very fast. Most societies regard literacy as a citizen's right that is obliged to be facilitated by each country. Therefore, many citizen in particular that literacy is a human rights, so this should be facilitated by governmentTherefore, many developing countries make literacy as a major development agenda that cost a lot. This is due to the government's awareness that literacy can provide opportunities for eco-economic and social development towards the prosperity of life, both individuals, families, communities and nations and countries.
 Values, character, moral educations aims to develop the ability of learners to make good decisions, to maintain goodness and to realize that goodness in his life. Character education functions; first, develop the basic potential to be goodness. Second, strengthen and build the behavior of a multicultural nation (strengthening the already good behavior). Third, enhance the civilization of a competitive nation in the world society (cultural filter that is less in accordance with the values ​​of Pancasila)
Configuration of value (social, cultural and psychological) which includes: first, the mindset is smart, critical, creative, innovative, curious, open minded, productive, science-oriented and reflective. Second, soul is religious, honest, trustworthy, fair, responsible, empathy, dare to take risks, never give up, willing to sacrifice, and spirited patriotic. Third, the sportive is clean and healthy, discipline, sportive, tough, reliable, enduring, friendly, cooperative, determinative, competitive, cheerful and persistent. Fourth, the taste / intention of being friendly, respectful, tolerant, caring, helpful, mutual cooperation (gotong royong), nationalist, cosmopolite, giving priority to the public interest, proudly using Indonesian language and products, dynamic, hard work, and work ethics.   
Government through Permendikbud No. 23 Year 2015on the Growing of Budi Pekertiis closely related to the strengthening of character education. Habituation and moral reinforcement in education is absolutely necessary. The nation's mental revolution can not be postponed. In line with the demands of students Life Skills of 21st Century, including 4C (Critical Thinking, Creativity, Communication, and Collaboration), the strengthening of character education becomes the fourth wrapper of these skills demands. Why is that? Without character and personality, as great as a country will be destroyed.
First, critical thinking. Learners are required for criticism and sharpness of a state. Reading social or electronic media that is difficult to distinguish from hoax news requires sharp thinking. Second, creativity. Creative learners are learners who are always different from the others. Has more habits compared to his fellow friends. Always want to be superior from others. Third, Communication is the skill of a person or learner in associating and connecting with friends, or others. Communication in general is relate to various circles, through various ways or media. The 21st century is the digital information century. The demand for communication skills will be more important. Fourth, collaboration. Learners are required to be able to collaborate in groups. After engaging in the community, collaboration develops not only with school friends or contemporary but also in collaboration with communities, leaders, or subordinates.

II. Discussion
2.1 Generation of Literacy
According to Apandi (2016: 14) how to cultivate manners through the movement of literacy, as follows: curiosity, want forward (mentally), critical and analytical thinking, willingness to share, discipline, hard work and grateful. The government through Kemendikbud RI (2017) is currently promoting the National Literacy Movement. The targets of this movement are all levels of society ranging from families, schools, and communities in general. The government hopes all elements of the society to be united, and to be an ecosystem to advance the generation of literacy in Indonesia.
Literacy here is not only identical to reading and writing, but also information, media, youth and citizenship, technological, financial literacies, and so on. In essence, every society can understand literacy as capital to become an advanced human being.
The challenges faced by the nation's literacy generation include: First, the literacy culture of Indonesian society is still low. It is the fact, for example; the Central Connecticut State University (2016) Survey results is Indonesia ranked 60th out of 61 countries. PISA Score (reading) Indonesia is ranked 64th out of 72 countries. INAP scores still show less categories. Indonesian public reading index is only 0.001. Cybercrime cases in 2016 as many as 1207 cases (defamation, hoax and others). Second, the limited number, access and quality of reading material quality. Third, build synergies and roles between all stakeholders. Fourth, build a literacy support facility in the public space. Fifth, the globalization.
The movement of the literacy has begun in schools and in the community. Among others, with the habit of reading non-text books for 15 minutes before starting the lesson. In addition, reading corners in the classroom, school library optimization, reading challenge, mass reading, synopsis of read books, literacy expo. These activities depend on the creativity of each school.
    Literacy activities in schools are usually managed by one or more teachers who are concerned and able to manage the movement well. They are literacy fighters who sometimes carry out the program is confronted with various obstacles or challenges that come from within the school or from outside the school. Nevertheless, they keep working and moving, because of their intention to build and ground the literacy movement at school.
Movement of literacy is an integral part of the movement of character development. How to cultivate character through literacy movements include: First, curiosity. People who read books have a curiosity about the problem they want to know. Even not just from books, he will read from other sources, ask or discuss with others whom he thinks can give him the information he needs. As a man of high curiosity, he was curiosity for information and knowledge, and not ashamed to ask some questions. In the Sundanese called as ‘bodo al'ewoh’, which means to ask anyone who judged more know. 
Second, the mental wants to go forward. People who often reading have the ideals or desires for himself advanced or the quality of his life increases. Entrepreneurs gain knowledge about success in addition to attending a business seminar or training, as well as he often reads books on effective marketing. And the result, many of them at the beginning of his business went bankrupt, after reading the books tips and motivation success of the successful entrepreneur, he managed to rise and achieve success.
Third, be critical and analytical. People who read a lot will have critical thinking skills compared to people who do not read. His analytical ability was increasingly. Every read word and sentence to encourage to keep thinking and analysing. The idea of ​​writing appears when he was reading a book. In other words, the activity of reading a book keeps his brain working and producing new thoughts.
Fourth, the desire to share. After reading a book, someone get knowledge, it will be more useful if distributed to others. For him the knowledge that is shared with others will increase the usefulness and blessing. There is a value of worship and satisfaction from the knowledge that is shared with others.
Fifth, discipline. Someone who read books will certainly take time to read the discipline. He will be good at managing time to read. For him, reading is a necessity as well as a duty to be fulfilled. People who often read usually have a reading target that must be completed within a certain time. If he missed one day not reading, he will replaced the next day for reading. By getting used to reading, then his life will be more discipline.
Sixth, hard work. People who read certainly need hard work to do it. Reading can use speed reading (skimming) or normal reading, or reading each sheet. To know the general description or a particular part of the book, it can be done through skimming, but if you want to understand in depth, then he should read the pages after sheet, even have to repeat reading it, it is requires time and energy a lot.
Seventh, grateful. Reading activity requires excellent health. People who are sick will be less excited to read at all and he want to rest or spend time in bed. Therefore, the activity of reading is as a form of our gratitude for the healthy conferred by Allah SWT. By read more, the level of gratitude will increase. And when a man is much grateful, Allah will add to his pleasure, including his body getting fit and also his eyes are getting healthier.
2.2 Strengthening Nation Character Education
Character education is character education plus, which involves aspects of knowledge (cognitive), feeling (feeling), and action (action). According to Lickona, T. (1992: 18) without these three aspects, character education will not be effective, the implementation must be systematic and sustainable. By strengthening the nation's character education, a child will be getting emotional intelligent. Emotional intelligence is an important provision in preparing child for the future because with it one will be able to succeed in the face of all kinds of challenges, including the challenge of academically successful.
In the book (Joseph Zins, et al 2001: 30) www.makdikdasmen.depdiknas.go.id accessed on September 1st 2012 compiled various research results on the effect of children's emotional intelligence on success in school. It is said that there are a number of risk factors causing child failure in school. The factors are not in the intelligence of the brain, but on the character, namely self-confidence, ability to work together, sociability, ability to concentrate, empathy, and communication skills.
Meanwhile, according to Lickona (in Sapriya, 2007: 15) suggests that the conceptualized characters have three interrelated fields of Moral Knowing, Moral Feeling, and Moral Behaviour. Therefore, a good character contains three competencies, namely knowing good, Design the good, and doing good, so that in turn it becomes a habit thinking, Habits of Soul and Habits of Action.
Moral knowledge is the aspect that is instilled to a child as a source of energy from the human self to act in accordance with moral principles. There are six aspects of emotions that must be felt by someone to be a human character, there are: conscience, self-esteem, feeling the suffering of others (empathy), goodness, self-control, and humanity.
Moral quotient is how to make moral knowledge realistic. To understand what drives a person in doing good morality, it can be seen from three aspects of the nation's character: competence, will and habit. Marthin Luther King Jr's Theory state that: '' intelligence plus character which is the true aim of education ''. 
The development of character not only becomes the needs of the Indonesian but also other countries likely the United States who have had life experience nation (hundreds of years) do not escape the effort how to develop the nation's character education in their country.
National commitment on the need for character education, set in Law Number 20 of 2003 on the National Education System to develop the skill, character and dignity of nation in order to educate the nation's life, aims at the development of the potential of learners to become believers and be conscious of God Almighty, goodness, social, healthy, knowledgeable, capable, creative, independent and responsible citizen.
Character education should be supported by character as basically, so it not to be easily lost by age. Therefore, character education as an integral part of the entire system of national education system must be developed and implemented systematically and holistically in the three pillars of the nation's character education, there are; the unit of education (school, college, nonformal education unit / program), family (core family , extended family, region, nation and country). It is also consistent with the concept of national education responsibility that is in school. Family and society. Each pillar is an educational entity that develops values ​​(ideal value, instrumental value, and praxis value) through the intervention process.
Education as a leading sector, seeks to utilize and empower all existing learning environments to initiate, improve, strengthen and continually improve the character education process in educational. For example, teaching and learning activities in the classroom by integrating into KBM in each subject. School culture by doing homework every day in school, religious values, nationalism, mutual cooperative, integrity and hard work. Extracurricular activities by integrating character education into extracurricular activities such as scouts, sports, papers and so on. Daily activities at home is education character.
National character values ​​as micro can be divided into four pillars, namely classroom-level teaching activities, daily activities in the form of culture, co-curricular or extracurricular activities, home-based activities, and in community life. In teaching and learning activities in nation education classes implemented by using an integrated approach in all subjects (embaded approach). In the educational unit, environment is conditioned to enable the physical and cultural environments of the education unit to enable participants to work together with other education unit citizens to be accustomed to build daily activities in educational units reflecting the national character of the nation.
In the family environment, the process of empowerment of parents/guard towards the characteristic developed in the educational unit becomes daily activities in their home and environment, it’s also religious values, nationalism, mutual cooperative, integrity and the value of hard worker. While the habit of strengthening the nation's character education in the community is strived for a process of strengthening of community leaders towards characterized behaviour developed in educational units into daily activities in their respective communities.
The values ​​of the nation's character and culture are constructed from various sources, including religion, Pancasila, culture and national education goals (Sarbaitinil in Muhammd Yaumi, 2014: 82-84). The sources can be explained, as follows: First, the values ​​of character and culture of the nation comes from the teachings of religion. The Indonesian nation has a diversity of beliefs. Religion of Islam, Christian, Hinduism, Buddhism, beliefs and other forms of beliefs can growth well in this country, although there are also small frictions. Plurality in religion has given raises to values, and diverse cultures that produce great values ​​in the life of the nation and the state.
Secondly, Pancasila as the basic state of the Republic of Indonesia has also become an integral part of the values ​​held nationally by citizens. The unity of the Republic of Indonesia was built by the founders of the nation on the basis of the principles of national and state life called Pancasila. Pancasila is found in the Preamble of the 1945 Nation’s Constitution and further elaborated in the articles contained in the 1945 Nation’s Constitution. That is, the values ​​contained in Pancasila become the values ​​governing the political, legal, economic, social, cultural, and art of Indonesian.
Third, culture as a truth that there is no community that is not based on cultural values ​​recognized by the community. Cultural values ​​that serve as the basis in giving meaning to a concept and meaning in communication among members of that society. An important cultural position in the life of society requires culture to be a source of value in cultural education and character of the nation. 
Fourth, the purpose of national education as a quality formula that must be owned by every citizen of Indonesia, developed by various educational units at all levels. The purpose of national education contains the various humanitarian values ​​that must be owned by every Indonesian citizen.
III. Conclusion
Based on the explanations above, then the authors can conclude as follows:
3.1 Generation of literacy is the ability of individuals to use all the potential and skill possessed in his life. Types of literacy to be developed include language and literature, numeracy, science, ICT, finance, culture and citizenship. The national literacy movement is not just a mechanical reading and writing skill. But also literacy includes responses, understandings, and daily activities that are structured and applied through continuous learning activities.
3.2  Dimensions of strengthening the education of the nation's character through educational programs in schools to strengthen the character of learners through harmonization of the soul, taste, thought, and sport with the support of public engagement and cooperation between schools, families and communities that are part of the revolution mental national movement.
3.3 Urgency of character education strengthening which includes: first, human resource development is the foundation of nation building. Second, 21st century skills needed by learners that is the quality of character, basic literacy, 4C competence (critically thinking, creative, communication and collaboration) in order to realize the competitiveness of Gold Generation on 2945. Third, the tendency of degradation conditions of morality, ethics and character.
3.4 The development of the potential of learners to become human beings who believe and cautious to God Almighty, morals, healthy, intellectual, proficient, creative, independent and become citizens of a democratic and responsible. The main values ​​of character values ​​include religious values, nationalism, self-reliance, mutual cooperation and integrity. The movement of strengthening character education as the foundation and the main spirit in education.

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