Anti-corruption education aims to establish awareness of the dangers of corruption, then rose to oppose it, promoting the values of honesty and not easily give it up for the good. Anti-corruption education, should be managed as a container dialog to grow the collective consciousness of every citizen of the importance of the eradication and prevention of corruption. Civil society as a process of creation of the civilization that refers to a shared policy values such as democracy, upholding the ethics and morals, transparent, tolerant, potentially, aspirated, motivated people, participate, consistent, able to coordinate, simple, synchronous, integral and uphold human rights
Keywords: Roles, Education, Anti-corruption, Community, Madani.
In the development of criminal acts of corruption, both in terms of quantity and quality, it can be said that corruption in Indonesia is no longer an ordinary crime, but is already a crime that is extraordinarily. Internationally, corruption is recognized as a very complex, systemic and widespread problem. The Center for Crime Prevention (CICP) as one of the organs of the United Nations broadly defines corruption as a missus of (public) power for private gain. This means that corruption has a broad dimension of action, including criminal acts bribery, embezzlement, fraud, extortion, abuse of power, exploiting a conflict interest, insider trading, nepotism, illegal commission, and illegal contributions of money to political parties. As a world problem, corruption is a transnational crime. Therefore, given the complexity and negative effects, corruption categorized as an extra ordinary crime requires an eradication effort with an extra ordinary measure.
For the Indonesian people, corruption is a chronic disease almost without remedy, infiltrated in all aspects of life and appears to be an image of the bad culture of the Indonesian people. Cynically, people can say that Indonesian identity is a corrupt behavior, both carried out by the executive, the legislature and the private sector. The image is not entirely true in reality, the complexity of corruption is felt not merely a legal problem, but a violation of the economic and social rights of society. Corruption has caused great poverty and social inequality. The community cannot enjoy equal distribution of development outcomes and does not enjoy the rights that should be obtained. Overall corruption has weakened the social and economic security of the Indonesian people.
Eradicating corruption is not just the aspiration of the wider community, but is an urgent need for the Indonesian people to prevent and eliminate it from the motherland. Thus, law enforcement in eradicating corruption is expected to reduce and broadly eliminate poverty. The aim of eradicating criminal acts of corruption is to realize the welfare of the Indonesian people who have suffered greatly because of increasingly rampant corruption.
In an educational perspective, every human being has the potential to develop and develop potential within him. Efforts are considered effective for developing this potential, namely educational activities. According to Hasan Langgulung (1987), education can be seen from two perspectives, namely individual and social perspectives. Based on an individual's perspective, education is an effort to develop individual potential. The social viewpoint of education is inheriting cultural values by the older generation to the younger generation, so that these values can be preserved. Education guides people to become more mature people intellectually, morally, and socially, in this case education is a cultural preserver. Thus, education can be seen as a preventive effort for the development of corrupt attitudes and behavior.
Viewed from the substantive, education as stated in Law No. 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System, it can be deemed appropriate to improve the nation's ethical resilience through social reforms that become the trigger for institutional reform. These institutional reforms can protect externally the possibility of corrupt practices, the development of corrupt behavior, and ultimately can improve the law and its enforcement and improve the quality of human resources. In this context, eradicating corruption through an educational perspective is very important.
Education is an important instrument in national development, both as a developer and enhancer of national productivity as well as forming national character (religious values, nationalism, mutual cooperation, integrity and independence). Regardless of the problem of corruption as a culture or not, the role of education can help increase community resilience in facing and eradicating corruption in Indonesia.
In addition, education is an appropriate means or response to improve the nation's ethical resilience through social reform that can be a trigger for institutional reform. External institutional reforms can guard against the possibility of corrupt behavior, and internal community reform can protect the possibility of growing and developing corrupt behavior. All of this can improve the law (institutional aspects) and improve human quality. In this context, education becomes very important. It is proper for the Government to make anti-corruption education as compulsory education taught in all schools and higher education in Indonesia. The Minister of Education and Culture, Minister of Religion and the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education can arrange a curriculum that accommodates it, both persuasive, analytical and repressive strategies. This is very urgent because there have been many corruption cases that are revealed every day in Indonesia.
Improving the government bureaucracy system and anti-corruption education are two very powerful things in combating corruption. With these two things being done continuously, Indonesia's future will be free from corruption. Corruption is a parasite for the Indonesian people, and the Indonesian people will be more advanced without corruption.
The concept of civil society is defined as the concept of Madani society, where the social system in civil society is taken from the history of the Prophet Muhammad as the leader who built high civilization by establishing the City of Medina and laying the foundations of civil society by outlining the provisions for living together in a document known as the Medina Charter (Mitsaq al-Madinah). The idealism of Madinah's community structure is based on the success of the Prophet in practicing and realizing the values of justice, equality, freedom, law enforcement and guarantees for the welfare of all citizens and protection of the weak and minority groups, although the existence of Madani society is only temporary but historically giving an important meaning as an example for the realization of the ideal society in the future to build the same life order, therefore the community order of Medina that had been built by the Prophet was qualitatively seen by some Muslim intellectuals as parallel to the concept of civil society.
Basically, the Madani society exemplified by the Prophet is a total reformation of the people who only recognize the supremacy of a king's personal power as long as this has become a general understanding of the state.
According to Nurcholis Madjid (1996), the word "Medina" comes from the Arabic "Madaniyah" which means civilization. Therefore, Madani society is associated with a civilized society. Nurcholis Madjid explained that the term Madani society refers to an Islamic community that was once built by the Prophet in Medina, namely an area called Yastrib which was later changed to Madinah which was in essence a statement of intention to establish and build a civilized society based on Islamic teachings and devoted people to God Almighty in that city. The basic characteristics of the community built by the Prophet are egalitarianism, respect for people based on achievement (not ethnicity, descent and race), openness of participation of all members of the community, law enforcement and justice, tolerance and pluralism and deliberation.
The Role of Anti-Corruption Education
Education is a pillar of character development, in order to prepare a new generation of anti-corruption. The development of an anti-corruption culture is through the implementation of anti-corruption education at every level of regional education based on government regulations, including:
a. Decree of the People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia Number 11 of 1998 concerning the Implementation of a Clean and Free of Corruption, Collusion and Nepotism;
b. Law Number 31 of 1999 concerning the Implementation of Clean and Free Countries of Corruption, Collusion and Nepotism;
c. Law Number 31 of 1999 concerning Eradication of Corruption Crime;
d. Law Number 28 of 1999 concerning State Administrators that Are Clean and Free of Corruption, Collusion and Nepotism;
e. Instruction of the President of the Republic of Indonesia Number 5 of 2004 concerning the Acceleration of Eradication of Corruption;
f. Law Number 30 of 2002 Article 13 concerning the Corruption Eradication Commission has the authority to organize anti-corruption education programs at every level of education.
Eradication of corruption must be systematic and massive. Anti-corruption education is a conscious means for that. Anti-corruption education should touch cognitive, affective, and conative aspects. The main purpose of anti-corruption education is a change in attitudes and behavior towards corrupt actions. Anti-corruption education also aims to create awareness of the dangers of corruption, then rise up against it, promote honesty values and not give up easily for good. Anti-corruption education should be managed as a forum for dialogue to grow the collective awareness of every citizen towards the importance of eradicating and preventing corruption.
According to Salahudin (2018: 242-243), there are two goals to be achieved from anti-corruption education, namely:
a. Instill anti-corruption spirit in every nation child. Through this education, the anti-corruption spirit will flow in the blood of each generation and be reflected in daily actions. Thus, the work of building a nation that is delayed due to corruption does not occur again in the future;
b. Build values and develop the capacity needed to form student civilian positions in fighting corruption.
Thus, eradicating corruption is not only the responsibility of law enforcement agencies, such as the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK), the Police and the Attorney General's Office, but the responsibility of every citizen of Indonesia.
The application of anti-corruption values in schools includes: First, honesty. The word honest can be defined as being upright, not lying, and not cheating. Without honesty, an individual will not be trusted in his social life. The value of honesty in education can be realized in the form of not doing academic fraud. For example, do not cheat and do not fake values. The value of honesty can also be realized in the student council activities. For example, to make financial statements of committee activities honestly. One way to practice honesty in school is the honesty canteen, which is a canteen in which there is no canteen or cashier guard so that the buyer must take his own food and drinks that have been given a price tag, then settle the payment themselves. The buyer puts the money according to the price that must be paid in the money box provided. If there is a change, he takes it himself from the money box. If there is not enough change, he can make a small note given to the canteen manager to ask for the change.
The canteen can be a place of learning for the younger generation about the importance of honesty with oneself, which will eventually lead to the generation of a generation that respects honesty while creating a generation of anti-corruption culture.
Second, be responsible. According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary, being responsible is a condition that must bear everything. Being responsible also means daring to admit mistakes and be prepared for all the consequences. Practicing responsibilities can be done by: 1) complying with all the rules applied by the school, both written and unwritten; 2) work on every assignment given by the teacher or assignment from schoolmates, do not delay work and do not look for scapegoats if they make mistakes in doing their assignments. The core responsibility is trustworthy; 3) mandate for the position given by the school, for example as chairman of the Intra-School Student Organization (OSIS) and class leader.
Third, discipline. The word definition of discipline is obedience to regulations. In managing life, both academically and socially, students need to live disciplined. Life discipline for students is able to manage and manage the time available to complete tasks, both in academic and social spheres. The benefits of disciplined life are students achieving their life goals with a more efficient time.
Fourth, simple. Simple lifestyles are developed since students get their education. With a simple lifestyle, each student is accustomed to not living lavishly. Simple lifestyle does not mean synonymous with poverty. Simple means not excessive in living life.
Fifth, work hard. Working hard is based on the willingness. In the word "will" contained perseverance, perseverance, endurance, work power, stance, courage, fortitude, perseverance, and unyielding. Working hard is an important thing to achieve results in accordance with the target.
Sixth, independent. Being independent for students can be interpreted as a process of maturing oneself, that is, by not relying on other people to do tasks and be responsible. Independent nature begins with working on one's own tasks, solving problems without involving parents. Seventh, fair. Based on the meaning of the word, fair is equally heavy, not biased and impartial. For students, characters need to be nurtured so that they can learn to consider and make decisions fairly and correctly. Fair does not have to generalize everything, but put and respond to everything in its proper place. Eighth, brave. Students need courage to succeed. The courage of students will be more mature if accompanied by their beliefs. Confidence will be strong if the knowledge is also strong. Dare to take risks to do something, of course must be accompanied by responsibility. Ninth, as a prospective future leader, a student needs to have a sense of concern for his environment. Students are required to care about the teaching and learning process in schools, management of resources in schools, and various things that develop in schools.
Madani society or civil society is one form of the ideal concept towards democracy, if it is already realized, Madani society has an indication that is in line with the perspective of civil society today.
In general, Madani society can be interpreted as a society or institution that has characteristics including: independence, tolerance, self-reliance, willingness to help one another and upholding the norms and ethics agreed upon together (Syamsuddin, 2017). Historically efforts to pioneer these institutions have emerged since the Indonesian people began to recognize modern education and the global capitalism system and modernization which raised awareness to establish modern organizations such as Budi Utomo (1908), Syarikat Dagang Islam (1911), Muhammadiyah (1912), etc.
According to U.S. perspective Hikam (1996), civil society is a discourse originating from the West and closer to its substance if it is still mentioned in the original term without translating with other terms or still adhering to the concept of de 'Tocquiville,is an organized social area that has characteristics such as: voluntary, self-generating, self-supporting, and high self-reliance dealing with the state and linkages with legal norms or values followed by its citizens. Civil Society is a region that guarantees the continuity of behavior and independent reflection and is not constrained by material conditions and is not absorbed in official political institutions.
The large number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that have the power to position themselves in relation to government policy is a manifestation of civil society. The state is not too strong in curbing the political, economic, and cultural empowerment movements or on the contrary supports as long as it is still within the legal corridor carried out by NGOs, this is an indication of the formation of civil society.
As explained above, the substance of Madani society and civil society has many, although not all, similarities, or the characteristics of both are not significantly different. Groups that tend to use the term Madani society emphasize that one characteristic is the existence of a law-abiding, just society, and the existence of a check and balance relationship between the state and the community (Azra, 2004).
The description of the shape of the future society that is desired by mankind who recognizes human dignity and rights are their rights and obligations in society, namely Madani society, can also be explained by the following characteristics:
First, people who recognize the nature of humanity that not only fills their need for life (the humanization process) but to exist as a human being. Second, the recognition of living with humans as social beings through state means. The state guarantees and opens up conducive opportunities so that its members can develop to realize themselves in a vertical order (between humans and God) or horizontal order (human with human). The interaction of the two orders is important because without orientation to God, the order of life together is meaningless. God is the source of value that governs the whole of human life. Third, people who recognize these characteristics and recognize human rights in a democratic life are what are called Madani society (civil society).
The universal and particularized values possessed by Madani society described in each culture of society must be realized in every individual in society. Prerequisites that become universal values in the enforcement of civil society cannot be separated because it is an integral whole and becomes the basis and the value of its existence is free public sphere, democratic, pluralism, social justice and civilization.
Based on some of the explanations above, the following can be concluded:
A. Some of the cultural principles of anti-corruption that must be applied in schools are: First, accountability is the compatibility between rules and implementation of work. Clear work standards are needed in the form of basic tasks and functions, performance evaluation through examination of lesson plan documents, class visits by the principal, and individual consultation with teachers and principals. In its implementation, accountability must be measured and accounted for through a reporting mechanism and accountability for all activities carried out. Second, transparency. Eradication of corruption starts from transparency and requires that all policy processes be carried out openly so that all forms of irregularities can be known to the public. The principle of transparency can be applied by students in life in school. For example, the OSIS activity program which reports its activities must be accessible to all students, even parents of students. With the school website, everyone can access funds and policies taken by the school quickly and completely.
B. The pillar of Madani society enforcers is an institution that is part of a social control that serves to criticize the policies of the discriminatory authorities and be able to fight for the aspirations of the oppressed people and these pillars become an absolute prerequisite for the realization of the strength of civil society, the pillar is a non-governmental organization (NGO), the press, the rule of law, universities and political parties.
Azra, Azzumardi. 2004. Menuju Masyarakat Madani: Gagasan Fakta dan Tantangan. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya.
Hikan, Muhammad A.S. 1996. Demokrasi dan Civil Society. Jakarta: LP3ES.
Madjid, Nurcholis. 1996. Menuju Masyarakat Madani. Dalam Jurnal Ulumul Qur’an No. 2/VII/1996. Hal. 51-55.
Salahudin, Anas. 2018. Pendidikan Antikorupsi: Pengantar. Bandung: Pustaka Setia.Syamsuddin, M. Din. 2017. Etika dalam Membangun Masyarakat Madani. Jakarta: Mizan.