Sabtu, 25 Maret 2017

LOCAL WISDOM BASED LEARNING By: Prof. Dr. Endang Komara, M.Si. (Professor of Sociology of Education Kopertis Region IV Employed On Master of Social Sciences Education STKIP Pasundan) Email: endang_komara@yahoo.co.id



Abstract
Learning is a form of interaction that is instructive between teachers and students to transform knowledge, attitudes and skills to produce students who can communicate, think critically and work together in social life.
Local knowledge is a way of life in science as well as a variety of life strategies that intangible activities carried out by local communities in addressing various problems in meeting their needs covering all elements of the life of religion, science, economics, technology, social organization, language and communication and the arts.
Keyword: Learning, Localknowledge, local communities.

I. Introduction
Education according to Sagala (2010: 3) is a conscious and deliberate effort to create an atmosphere of learning and the learning process so that students are actively developing the potential for him to have the spiritual power of religion, self-control, personality, intelligence, character, and skills needed him, society, nation and state.
Local wisdom in English conceived as local wisdom / local knowledge / local genius which means local policy or local knowledge or local intelligence. Their fulfillment system includes all the elements of religious life, science, economics, technology, social organization, language, communication and the arts.
Environmental wisdom or local knowledge society is already in the public life since ancient times ranging from prehistoric times to the present, environmental wisdom is the positive behavior of man in touch with nature and the surrounding environment that can be sourced from religious values, customs, advice grandmother ancestors or local culture. According Wietoler (Akbar, 2006) the local wisdom that woke naturally in a community to adapt to the surrounding environment, this behavior evolved into a culture in an area and will thrive for generations in general, local culture or the culture of the region defined as culture that develops in an area, whose elements are culture tribes who live in that area.
In the implementation of sustainable development by advancing technology to make people forget the importance of tradition or culture of the community in managing the environment, local culture is often considered something that is out in the present century, so the development planning often does not involve the community.
Learning will be more meaningful when learning puts students at the center of learning student centered rather than teacher centered. This is in line with the opinion of Suparno (Darlia, 2010: 2) that learning is not merely a passive activity received materials from the teacher, but an active process of digging a long experience, search and find new experiences and assimilate and connect between them to form meaning. Meaning created from what students see, hear, feel, and experience. For teachers, teaching is an activity facilitating students to construct their own knowledge through his involvement in learning activities. In other words, most of the time learning process based on activity with students.
Teachers always tried to keep the activities undertaken to achieve the goals set can be done in a way that is effective and efficient. Teachers also play an important role in learning strategy planners. Professional teachers should design learning that is active, creative, effective and attractive. Indicators of professional teachers as designers of learning include: (1) master the curriculum and learning tools, meaning teachers must be responsive in the mastery curriculum, and learning tools, (2) the material master, (3) control of various methods, and (4) able to manage learning.
The ability is poorly understood by the teacher, so that learning will produce a learning process and results were less than satisfactory. This requires teachers to be creative in determining the management strategy of learning by setting learning model is effective in achieving the learning objectives.



II. Discussion
A.   Local Wisdom Based Learning and Character Education
Based on the English-Indonesian dictionary, local wisdom consists of two words : local and wisdom. Local means place and wisdom means wise decision. On the other words, local wisdom can be defined as ideas, values, point of views which are wise, full of wisdom, good, followed by people in certain place. In anthropology terms, it is known as local genius.
As an island country, Indonesia has different histories and cultures. Every region, has their own uniqueness preserved by the local people. Alwasilah, Suryadi, and Karyono (2009 :52) stated that local wisdom is collection of fact belief, and perception of people. It includes the way of observing the nature, solving the problem, and validating information. Explicity, local wisdom is a process of how knowledge gained, kept, applied, preserved, and shared. On the other hand, Soemardjo (2015 :2) stated that local wisdom is merely a problem of people who live in global era ; they have forgotten their own home and they aim to live life as modern human like people of other countries.
In writers opinion,  these two theories depict that local wisdom is human creation in every place which become their daily habbit ; its given to the young generation to be introduced to people of the world so they can preserve and respect the local wisdom . Hermawan, (2012 : 34) local wisdom consist of two words : local and wisdom and while Ardianto (2011 :292) stated that local wisdom is knowledge and experience releted to daily activities, occupation, and culture which has been existed since a long time ago from one generation to another in addition to that, Rahyono, (2009 :7) said that local wisdom is human intelligence owned by curtain ethnic group which is gained through the people experience. It means that local wisdom is certain people experience which is probably not experienced by other people. These values will be strongly attached to certain people in a long period of time, as long as they exist. So the point is that local wisdom can be processed as ideas of the local which are wise, have good value, attached, and followed by the local people. Yunus, (2014 :37) added that local wisdom is the cultured had by certain group of people in certain places : the culture is expected to be able to face the globalization era because it has values to develop the characteristic of the people.
On the other hand, Rosidi, (2009 :8) declares that “the impacts coming from all around the world has given colours to human, “Thus , culture becomes a coherent design to organize someone’s activity and
predict other behavior culture consist of social value, social norm, knowledge, social and religious structure as a whole, and also intellectual and artistic declaration which become the uniqueness of certain people or society.
Based on those opinions, local wisdom can be described as the intelligence of certain people owning a   culture which was still existed. The attached values were based on experience which had been tried out by one generation to another.

B.   The Scope of Sundanese Local Wisdom 
Local wisdom is a comprehensive and wide phenomenon. The scope of local wisdom is many and vary so it is difficult to limit space. Traditional wisdom and modern wisdom are different from local wisdom. Local wisdom focused on place and locality of the wisdom not on generation. Local wisdom could be just appeared in a community as the result of interaction between the people, nature, and culture. According to that, local wisdom would not be always traditional as it also includes the modern wisdom which had wider meaning than the traditional one. To differentiate the new local wisdom and the old one, the terms such as modern wisdom, new wisdom or content wisdom can be used. Traditional wisdom called as old wisdom. History shows that each ethnic and race has their own local wisdom. For example, Batak is known with its expressive, Javanese was popular with is softness, Madura had high dignity and so on. More than that, each ethnicity was friendly with their surrounding. Related to the Sundanese local wisdom, Ekadjati, (2014 :19) stated Sundanese culture has egalitarian characteristic before the effect, of Mataram culture coming to the Priangan sub-culture. It has big potential for making horizontal mobilization or applying the value of democracy. In other sides, the phenomenon can trigger the potential for participation, but at the same time, it can change the existed pattern. So the Sundanese culture which is preserved by people of Kampung Naga is still pure without any influence from other culture. Ekadjadi said that a part from that structure, they are also another structure outside of kanekes but it is still approved by the society.
Sundanese local wisdom actually giving a wide space of the existence of religion leader to study by other ethnic in other world. According to Suryalaga (2009 :136-138) said that there are group of leader based of function called Tri Tangtu di Buana which is determined the world. First, Sang Rama, who responsible for maintaining of eart. Second, Sang Resi, who has knowledge in education, and the third is  called Sang Prabu, who lead the government system.
Many expert discussed of the features of local wisdom such as Quaritch Wales, an Antropolog who stated that local genius as a identity culture, culture of nation that makes the country able to absorb and manage others culture from outside. While Ayatrohaedi, (1986 :40-41) stated that cultural element as local genius can be survived until now and the characteristic is
1.    Able to survive from other side
2.    Able to accommodate others elements
3.    Able to integrate other culture with the original one
4.    Able to control the other culture
5.    Able to give the sign of culture development.

Meanwhile, Mulyana, (2007 :47) stated that local wisdom consist of 5 (five) dimensions which are
1.    Local knowledge
2.    Local value
3.    Local skill
4.    Local sources
5.    Local mechanism decision

C.   The Nature of Local Wisdom
According to Mulyana, (2004 :8) said that educational value is often formulated in different way, this caused by differ point of views. For example, sociology expert defined that value as a eager, needed, and leisureuntil they get pressure from their society. Psychology expert defined value as a attitude tendency, started from psychology symptom like a desire, performance, needed, and belief.  While anthropology expert views value as a price which had culture patterns in society such as language, habit, daily activity and law.
On the other hand, Yunus, (2014 :27) stated that value happened in psychology aspect called as belief. Belief comes as desire, motive, manner, needed, and want. So good or bad decision, black or white decision as a caused by psychology process and guide to the act based on their choice. He enforces that norm or value as a external factor who influences the human attitude.Mulyana also stated that value is a guidance and represent to the belief.
According to Mulyana, (2004 :32) explained that there are 6 (six) orientation values which is often used by human being as a references in daily life. There are :
1.    Theories value is value which involve logic and rational consideration and proving about the truth
2.    Economic value is value based profit. The object is about price
3.    Estetic value is dealing with beauty compatible
4.    Social value is the relationship between human and love
5.    Politic value means the high value is a power which has great influence to the person
6.    Religion value refer to the high truth or belief.
Local knowledge is derived from two words namely wisdom and local. In general, local wisdom meaning can be understood as the ideas of local (local) that are wise, full of wisdom, good value, embedded and followed by members of the community. Local knowledge is formed as the excellence of local culture and geographical conditions in the broad sense. Local knowledge is a product of the cultural past that should continuously hold onto life. Although local but worth the value contained in it is considered very universal.
Meanings the local wisdom in the world of education is still lacking. There are terms of local content in the structure of the curriculum, but very formal the meaning for local content less explore local wisdom. Local content was limited to local language and local dance that taught to students. Educational challenge is complex. Especially if it is associated with global advances in science and technology, local values began to fade and abandoned. Because the exploration of the sublime cultural wealth of the nation is necessary to do.
Local wisdom contains a lot of ideals and life wisdom. Importance of local wisdom in our education extensively is part of our efforts to improve national resilience as a nation. Culture archipelago plural and dynamic is a source of local knowledge that will not die, because everything is a fact of life (living reality) that cannot be avoided.
Revitalization of local wisdom based learning according Widja (Koentjaraningrat, 1986), first, the historical foundation that local knowledge can shape local history. For the study of local history is the study of life in community or communities of a certain environment in the dynamic development in various aspects of life. Early establishment of local wisdom in a society generally not known exactly when such wisdom appears. In general, formed starting from the community do not recognize text (“praaksara”). This praaksara tradition which gave birth to the oral tradition. Second, the psychological foundation. Psychologically local wisdom based learning provides a psychological experience to students as observers and implementing activities. The psychological impact can be seen from the courage of students in asking about his ignorance, present their views, presentation to the class, and communicate with the public. With the use of the environment, the needs of students on psychological development will be obtained. Because the environment is one of the factors that influence the formation and development of individual behavior, both the physical environment and socio-psychological, including the study. Third, the political and economic foundation. Learning based on local wisdom is contributing competence to know the working world competition. From an economic point of this study provide concrete examples of real life to the students to make ends meet. Because in the end the students are educated and prepared to face the global competition that requires skill and a high competence in the social environment. Fourth, the juridical basis. Learning based on local wisdom directing learners to better appreciate the cultural heritage of Indonesia. Schools not only shaped the generation learners become qualified in terms of cognitive, but also must shape the attitudes and behavior of learners in accordance with the prevailing demand.
Local knowledge is closely associated with character education. Because the character education is values education, manners education, moral education, personality education that aims to develop the ability of learners to provide good-bad decision, maintaining what is good and realize that kindness in everyday life with a vengeance. On that basis, character education is not just to teach what is right and wrong but character education also instills habits (habituation) about good things so that learners become familiar (cognitive) about what is right and wrong, able to feel (affective) good value and used to do (psychomotor). In other words, a good character education should involve not only the aspect of “a good knowledge (moral knowing), but also feel good or loving good (moral feeling), and behavior (moral action)”.
Character education emphasis on habit that constantly practiced and performed. Character education is essentially aimed at shaping the nation's toughness, competitive, high morals, tolerant, worked-togetherness, patriotic spirit, developing a dynamic, service-oriented science and technology are all animated by faith and piety to God Almighty that based on Pancasila. Character education function as, first developing the potential base to be good hearted, good thoughts and good behavior. Second, strengthen and develop the nation's multicultural behavior. Third, improve the competitive civilization in the association world. Character education is done through a variety of media that include family, educational units, civil society, political society, government, business and the media.
Character education is mentioned as values education, manner education, moral education, personality education that aims to develop the ability of learners to provide good-bad decision, maintain what is good and realize that kindness in everyday life with a vengeance. On that basis, character education is not just to teach what is right and wrong but character education also instills habits (habituation) about good things so that learners become familiar (cognitive) about what is right and wrong, able to feel (affective) good value and used to do (psychomotor). In other words, a good character education should involve not only the aspect of '' a good knowledge (moral knowing), but also feel good or loving good (moral feeling), and behavior (moral action) ''.
Character education emphasis on habit or custom which continues - being practiced and carried out. Character education is essentially aimed at shaping the nation's toughness, competitive, high morals, tolerant, worked-togetherness, patriotic spirit, developing a dynamic, service-oriented science and technology are all animated by faith and piety to God Almighty is based on Pancasila. Character education functions: (1) develop the potential base to be good hearted, good thoughts and good behavior; (2) strengthen and develop the nation's multicultural behavior; (3) improve competitive civilization in the association world. Character education is done through a variety of media that include family, educational units, civil society, political society, government, business, and media.
Education units so far have been to develop and implement a character-forming values through education units respectively. This is the precondition of character education in the educational unit to the next at this point is reinforced by the results of empirical studies grades 18 Curriculum Center. Value precondition (the existing values) are referred to, among others: Taqwa, clean, neat, comfortable, and well mannered. In order to further strengthen the implementation of character education has identified 18 values derived from religion, Pancasila, culture and national education goals, namely; (1) religious, (2) honest, (3) tolerance, (4) discipline, (5) hard work, (6) a creative, (7) independent, (8) democratic, (9) curiosity, (10 ) the national spirit, (11) love of the homeland, (12) the achievements, (13) friends / communicative, (14) love peace, (15) likes to read, (16) care about the environment, (17) social care, and ( 18) responsibility.
In the implementation, the number and type of the selected character will certainly be different from one area or school with each other. It depends on the interests and conditions of each educational unit. Among the various values are developed, the implementation can be started from an essential value, simple, and easy to perform in accordance with the conditions of each school / region. That is clean, comfortable, disciplined, polite and courteous.
The education process is based on the totality of the psychological character that covers all potential human individual (cognitive, affective and psychomotor) and functions in the context of the totality of sociocultural interaction within the family, the education unit, and the community.
Categorizing the value is based on the consideration that the essence of the behavior of a person of character is the embodiment functions totality of psychological cover the entire potential of the human individual (cognitive, affective, and psychomotor) and functions of the totality of the socio-cultural context of interaction (in the family, the education unit, and the public) and last a lifetime. Configuring the characters in the context of the totality of psychological and sociocultural processes can be grouped into: (1) heart manner (spiritual & emotional development); (2) think manner (intellectual development); (3) sports and kinesthetic (physical and kinesthetic development); and (4) the feeling and intention manner (affective and creativity development). This process holistically and have a coherent and complementary interrelations.

    D.  Local Wisdom Based Learning Foundation
1. Historical Foundation
Local knowledge can be sourced from a local cultural community. In historical perspective, local knowledge can shape local history. For the study of local history is the study of life community or communities of a certain environment in the dynamic development in various aspects of life. Widja (Koentjaraningrat, 1986). Early establishment of local wisdom in a society generally not known exactly when such wisdom appears. In general, formed starting from the community do not recognize text (“praaksara”). This praaksara tradition which gave birth to the oral tradition.
Historically oral tradition much to explain about the past of a society or a community origins. The development of this oral tradition can be a belief or faith community. In people who do not recognize text contained an effort to devote his past experiences through stories transmitted orally and continuously passed down from generation to generation. Inheritance is done with the aim of becoming the next generation of people who have a sense of ownership or a love story of her past. The oral tradition is a way to pass on the history of the people who do not know the writing, in the form of a verbal message in the form of questions that have been made in the past by the generation that lived before the generation now.
2. Psychological Basis
Psychologically local wisdom based learning provides a psychological experience to students as observers and implementing activities. The impact of psychological bias seen from the courage of students in asking about his ignorance, present their views, presentation to the class, and communicate with the public. With the use of the environment, the needs of students on psychological development will be obtained. Because the environment is one of the factors that influence the formation and development of individual behavior, both the physical environment and socio-psychological, including the study. Against these environmental factors some are calling it a meaningful empirical experience.

III. Conclussion
A.   Local wisdom is a comprehensive and wide phenomenon. The scope of local wisdom is many and vary so it is difficult to limit space. Traditional wisdom and modern wisdom are different from local wisdom. Local wisdom focused on place and locality of the wisdom not on generation. Local wisdom could be just appeared in a community as the result of interaction between the people, nature, and culture.
B.   Local wisdom consist of 5 (five) dimensions which are: local knowledge, Local value, Local skill, Local sources, and Local mechanism decision.
C.   Implementation of character education has identified 18 values derived from religion, Pancasila, culture and national education goals, namely; (1) religious, (2) honest, (3) tolerance, (4) discipline, (5) hard work, (6) a creative, (7) independent, (8) democratic, (9) curiosity, (10 ) the national spirit, (11) love of the homeland, (12) the achievements, (13) friends / communicative, (14) love peace, (15) likes to read, (16) care about the environment, (17) social care, and ( 18) responsibility.
D.   Local Wisdom Based Learning Foundation, namely; historical foundation, and
psychological basis. In historical perspective, local knowledge can shape local history. For the study of local history is the study of life community or communities of a certain environment in the dynamic development in various aspects of life. The impact of psychological bias seen from the courage of students in asking about his ignorance, present their views, presentation to the class, and communicate with the public.


REFERENCES

Ayatrohaedi (ed.). 1986. Kependidikan Budaya Bangsa. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya.
Akbar, Sa’dun. 2006. Pengembangan Kurikulum IPS. Malang: Pascasarjana Universitas Kanjuruhan.
Alwasilah, A. Suryadi K & Karyono. 2009. Etnopedagogi. Bandung: PT Kiblat Bulan Utama.
Ekadjati. 2014. Kebudayaan Sunda Bandung: Dunia Pustaka Jaya. Bandung: Rineka Cipta.
Kemendiknas. 2011. Pedoman Pelaksanaan Pendidikan Karakter. Jakarta.
Koentjaraningrat. 1984. Kebudayaan Mentalitas dan Pembangunan. Jakarta: Gramedia.
Komara, Endang. 2014. Belajar dan Pembelajaran Interaktif. Bandung: Refika Aditama.
Mulyana, Agus & Gunawan Restu. 2007. Sejarah Lokal: Penulisan & Pembelajaran Sejarah. Bandung: Salamina Press.
Sagala, Syaiful. 2010. Konsep dan Makna Pembelajaran. Bandung: Alfabeta.








EDUCATIONAL VALUE ENTAILED IN LOCAL WISDOM IN KAMPUNG NAGA TASIKMALAYA By Prof. Dr. Endang Komara, M.Si (Lecturer at Magister of Social Studies STKIP Pasundan Indonesia) and Saeful Rahman, M.Pd. (Teacher at Senior High School UPI Bandung) Email: endang_komara@yahoo.co.id, saefulrahman1974@gmail.com



ABSTRACT
The diversity of Indonesia in terms of ethnic, tribe, and culture or others should actually show the originally of them. At the same time, the originality also needs to have great norm that can be main source of inspiration and way of life. Educational values, local wisdom, norm, and rules in Kampung Naga has a relationship with culture heritage. The objective of the study is, first, how the local wis dom keep in daily life in Kampung Naga community to keep survive and protection. Second, to analyse how the educational  values can be explored continually and the last how the local wisdom can be exist by heritage to the next generation of Kampung Naga Society. The  qualitative technique approach is applied by collecting observation data, dept interviews, and documentation The results show that, first, the local wisdom are transferred and passing from generations to generations through family unit and local community. Daily behaviour and attitude, fashion manner, cooking, domestic activities, and paddy rice field culture are transmitted through member of the family or household. The adat leaders, the elders, and the local ulama are not involve in these matters. Meanwhile, community rituals, forest usage and its taboo, cultivation at forest area, as well as housing construction are transmitted through community sphere in particular adat leaders, the elders, and the local ulama. The second result is educative values dan local wisdom are transferred by natural daily activities from their parents at home and by ceremonial in Kampung Naga.
 Keywords: Educative values, local wisdom, and cultural  transferred

A.    Research Background
The diversity of Indonesia in terms of ethnic, tribe, and culture or others should actually show the originally of them. At the same time, the originality also needs to have great norm that can be main source of inspiration and way of life. History, basically, shows the characteristics of each ethnic. For example Batak people tend to have several characteristics such as expressive, gentle. Then Madura. Madura people is well known for its high confidance. While China  people tend to be hard work. Above all, each ethnic has similar characteristics which are hospitality and careness especially to the environment around them. All the characteristic showed do not come without any efforts, the need a very long time with long process. The process makes the characteristics become a culture which turn into tradition having good norm reflected in people daily life. On the other hand, the good norm it self is decreasing from time to time. It now only becomes symbol which is meaningless. Even recently, the culture also becomes nonsense. There are a lot of factors that reduces it. They are because of the less of people ability in defining the culture and norm creatively. Besides, it become worse because of the issue of globalization.
In this democracy era, it seems that people can do anything they want. According to Kartodirdjo, (1993 :51) state that the historical value basically shows particular continued. National history which is multi-dimension has several functions such as, preventing racism, giving more intellectual knowledge, preventing capitalism. This means that local norm/value  need to be in line with life dimension to create an agreement of national community to support the development of a country. The history allows people to the understanding of past experience of people or nation.
Indonesia, now, is not only in the middle of decreasing process of value which actually should be hold and applied by all people, but also it is in the process of changing the good norms to bad characteristics such as greedy, and arrogant. With this process of decreasing norm, the people life becomes worse and harder leading to violence and worry and feel unsaved.
On the other hand, Sumardjo, (2007 :24), states, history is past experiences enabling people to be better and wishes. Besides, they themselves need to be able to take good lesson to be their basic and inspiration to take actions in the future.
Based on that explanation, the writer concludes that wise people are those making the good past experiences as their consideration to take action in the future. Therefore, the things that they do will be better and meaningful. Moreover, today should be better than yesterday and tomorrow should be better than today. This awareness should be developed by all people and should be understood well to brave good consideration for taking any actios or plans in the near time. The decision of having purpose of life should also in line with right choice of strategy and method. Therefore, it also needs several factors to achieve good norms and values.
Based on this phenomenon, the writer intends to know about educational  value which are available in Kampung Naga Tasikmalaya. Then the writer will conduct a research entitled “Educational Value Entailed in the Norm of Kampung Naga Tasikmalaya”.
B. Research Problem
Based on the background explained, the writer wants to determine about how is the educational value entailed in local norm/value in Kampung Naga Tasikmalaya ?
Besides, the research problems will be mentioned as follows :
1.      How is the local value in Kampung Naga Tasikmalaya ?
2.      How is educational value reflected in local value in Kampung Naga ?
3.      How can educational value be manifested among people in Kampung Naga ?

C. Research Aims
1. General Aim
     To determine educational value reflected in local norm/value in Kampung Naga
2. Specific Aims
a. To know definition and classification of educational value reflected in local value
b. To know how far local value can be shown in Kampung Naga
c. To know how far people in Kampung Naga try to manifest the value to the young generation.

The Definition of Local Wisdom
Based on the English-Indonesian dictionary, local wisdom consists of two words : local and wisdom. Local means place and wisdom means wise decision. On the other words, local wisdom can be defined as ideas, values, point of views which are wise, full of wisdom, good, followed by people in certain place. In anthropology terms, it is known as local genius.
As an island country, Indonesia has different histories and cultures. Every region, has their own uniqueness preserved by the local people. Alwasilah, Suryadi, and Karyono (2009 :52) stated that local wisdom is collection of fact belief, and perception of people. It includes the way of observing the nature, solving the problem, and validating information. Explicity, local wisdom is a process of how knowledge gained, kept, applied, preserved, and shared. On the other hand, Soemardjo (2015 :2) stated that local wisdom is merely a problem of people who live in global era ; they have forgotten their own home and they aim to live life as modern human like people of other countries.
In writers opinion,  these two theories depict that local wisdom is human creation in every place which become their daily habbit ; its given to the young generation to be introduced to people of the world so they can preserve and respect the local wisdom . Hermawan, (2012 : 34) local wisdom consist of two words : local and wisdom and while Ardianto (2011 :292) stated that local wisdom is knowledge and experience releted to daily activities, occupation, and culture which has been existed since a long time ago from one generation to another in addition to that, Rahyono, (2009 :7) said that local wisdom is human intelligence owned by curtain ethnic group which is gained through the people experience. It means that local wisdom is certain people experience which is probably not experienced by other people. These values will be strongly attached to certain people in a long period of time, as long as they exist. So the point is that local wisdom can be processed as ideas of the local which are wise, have good value, attached, and followed by the local people. Yunus, (2014 :37) added that local wisdom is the cultured had by certain group of people in certain places : the culture is expected to be able to face the globalization era because it has values to develop the characteristic of the people.
On the other hand, Rosidi, (2009 :8) declares that “the impacts coming from all around the world has given colours to human, “Thus , culture becomes a coherent design to organize someone’s activity and
predict other behavior culture consist of social value, social norm, knowledge, social and religious structure as a whole, and also intellectual and artistic declaration which become the uniqueness of certain people or society.
Based on those opinions, local wisdom can be described as the intelligence of certain people owning a   culture which was still existed. The attached values were based on experience which had been tried out by one generation to another.
The Scope of Sundanese Local Wisdom 
Local wisdom is a comprehensive and wide phenomenon. The scope of local wisdom is many and vary so it is difficult to limit space. Traditional wisdom and modern wisdom are different from local wisdom. Local wisdom focused on place and locality of the wisdom not on generation. Local wisdom could be just appeared in a community as the result of interaction between the people, nature, and culture. According to that, local wisdom would not be always traditional as it also includes the modern wisdom which had wider meaning than the traditional one. To differentiate the new local wisdom and the old one, the terms such as modern wisdom, new wisdom or content wisdom can be used. Traditional wisdom called as old wisdom. History shows that each ethnic and race has their own local wisdom. For example, Batak is known with its expressive, Javanese was popular with is softness, Madura had high dignity and so on. More than that, each ethnicity was friendly with their surrounding. Related to the Sundanese local wisdom, Ekadjati, (2014 :19) stated Sundanese culture has egalitarian characteristic before the effect, of Mataram culture coming to the Priangan sub-culture. It has big potential for making horizontal mobilization or applying the value of democracy. In other sides, the phenomenon can trigger the potential for participation, but at the same time, it can change the existed pattern. So the Sundanese culture which is preserved by people of Kampung Naga is still pure without any influence from other culture. Ekadjadi said that a part from that structure, they are also another structure outside of kanekes but it is still approved by the society.
Sundanese local wisdom actually giving a wide space of the existence of religion leader to study by other ethnic in other world. According to Suryalaga (2009 :136-138) said that there are group of leader based of function called Tri Tangtu di Buana which is determined the world. First, Sang Rama, who responsible for maintaining of eart. Second, Sang Resi, who has knowledge in education, and the third is  called Sang Prabu, who lead the government system.
The Characteristic  of Local Wisdom
Many expert discussed of the features of local wisdom such as Quaritch Wales, an Antropolog who stated that local genius as a identity culture, culture of nation that makes the country able to absorb and manage others culture from outside. While Ayatrohaedi, (1986 :40-41) stated that cultural element as local genius can be survived until now and the characteristic is
1.      Able to survive from other side
2.      Able to accommodate others elements
3.      Able to integrate other culture with the original one
4.      Able to control the other culture
5.      Able to give the sign of culture development.

Meanwhile, Mulyana, (2007 :47) stated that local wisdom consist of 5 (five) dimensions which are
1.      Local knowledge
2.      Local value
3.      Local skill
4.      Local sources
5.      Local mechanism decision

The Nature of Local Wisdom
According to Mulyana, (2004 :8) said that educational value is often formulated in different way, this caused by differ point of views. For example, sociology expert defined that value as a eager, needed, and leisureuntil they get pressure from their society. Psychology expert defined value as a attitude tendency, started from psychology symptom like a desire, performance, needed, and belief.  While anthropology expert views value as a price which had culture patterns in society such as language, habit, daily activity and law.
On the other hand, Yunus, (2014 :27) stated that value happened in psychology aspect called as belief. Belief comes as desire, motive, manner, needed, and want. So good or bad decision, black or white decision as a caused by psychology process and guide to the act based on their choice. He enforces that norm or value as a external factor who influences the human attitude.Mulyana also stated that value is a guidance and represent to the belief.

Classification Value
According to Mulyana, (2004 :32) explained that there are 6 (six) orientation values which is often used by human being as a references in daily life. There are :
1.      Theories value is value which involve logic and rational consideration and proving about the truth
2.      Economic value is value based profit. The object is about price
3.      Estetic value is dealing with beauty compatible
4.      Social value is the relationship between human and love
5.      Politic value means the high value is a power which has great influence to the person
6.      Religion value refer to the high truth or belief

Object of Research
The research took place in Kampung Naga Tasikmalaya. The choice of this place as because the writer wanted to known deeply of educational value entiled local genius of this place. Besides that trying to get more information which is necessary and useful for young generation. Also, the writer has great eager to take Kampung Naga as a unique from other region.

Method Research
The aim of research is to get the point of view as explicit about educational value entiled in local value in Kampung Naga Tasikmalaya. The research used qualitative approach. It means that the writer hopes that all the theories of l ocal genius in Kampung Naga is similar with what the writer has done. Meanwhile, Moleong (2006 : 4) stated that qualitative research is a tradition in social studies as a fundamental depend from observing to the human not only personally but also environment. Moleong also added that the goal of qualitative research is how far the understanding of the phenomenon in one society it self. Looking forward of behavior, attitude, daily life, language, tools, religion and art. The writer want to know weather this research gets descriptive data by as an instrument key, and the technique using collective all data, analysis, and conclude by the sentences.

Data Source
The research used qualitative approach. So hopefully the research would get data by natural setting. Data collective to be done in this research and using primer data to support research result. This primer data gained from subject research such as Kuncen, Lebe, Punduh, and older people surrounding Kampung Naga. According to Sugiono, (2008 :309) said that data collecting in qualitative research to be done by natural condition, primer data source, and collecting data technique gained by participant observation, dept interview, and documentation. All the participant was planned before research.
Based on the explanation above, primer data source and collecting data technique gained by direct dept interview to the research object so the writer gained accuracy information and credibility.

Secondary Data
This research, not only gain the data from primer data by dept interview, but also using secondary data which researcher gain information or data from collecting of documentation, heritage, and building in Kampung Naga.
The benefit of qualitative approach is that the information is richer and has a deeper insight into the phenomenon under study.

Instrument Research
According to Creswell, (1998 : 261) said that the researcher  is the main instrument in this research. The writer collect all the data they need such as documentation, observation, even dept interview which has designed with knowledge and suitable method. Besides that, the writer continues to dig more information in the area.

Data Collection Technique
According to Sugiono, (2011 : 225), said that there are two kind of sources data,  primer and secondary. Primer source means direct data which can be found in the field by observation, and direct interaction. While secondary data is gained by all documentations and heritages. From those sources, primer source is the most important things due to more accuracy and valid.

Analysis Data
The process of analysis data can be done by coming to the subject research for many time in term of getting more and more information  needed. Miles and Huberman, (2007 : 23) said that analysis data can be found by written or pictures. Also researcher can do many visit and interact with the leader to dig more information.
Data processing can be done with several steps :
1.Data Reduction
Whenever all the data is gained, data has to organized and somehow meaningfully reduced even reconfigured. Miles and Huberman (1994) described the first of three elements of qualitative data analysis as a data reduction. Data reduction refers to process of selecting, focusing, simplifying and transforming the data that appearin written up fields or transcriptions.
2.Data Display
Data display is a process that should be done after data reduction is gained. Data displays goes a step beyond data reduction by provide an organized, compressed assembly of information that permit conclusion.
3.Conclusion and Verification
Conclusion and verification is taken as the last step or process from data reduction and data display. The conclusion would be gained after all the data research was manage and try to arrange and display the conclusion based on the qualitative research as the fact in the field.
Validity of Data
According to Lincoln and Guba (1985 :301) proposed four criteria for judging the soundness of qualitative research and explicitly offer these as an alternative to more traditional qualitative oriented criteria.
1.Credibility
The credibility criteria involves establishing that the result of qualitative research are credible or believable from the perspective of the participant in the research. Since from this understand the phenomena of interest from the participant’s eyes, the participants are the only ones who can legitimately judge the credible of the result.
2.Depandibility
The traditional qualitative view of reliability is based on the assumption of replicability. Essentially it is concerned with whether we would obtain the same  result if we could observe the same thing twice. But we can’t actually measuring twice – by definition if we are measuring twice, we are measuring two different thing. In order to estimate reliability, qualitative research construct various hypothetical notions.
3.Confirmability
Qualitative research tends to assume the each researcher brings a unique perspective to the study. Confirmability  refers to the degree to which the result could be confirmed or corroborated by others. There are a number of strategies for enhancing confirmability. The researcher can document the procedures for checking and rechecking the data throughout the study. Another researcher can take “devil advocate” role with respect to the result, and this process can be documented.
4.Transferability
Transferability refers to the degree to which the result of qualitative research can be generalized or transferred to other contexts or setting. From a qualitative perspective transferability is primarily the responsibility of the one doing the generalizing. The qualitative researcher can enhance transferability by doing a thorough job of describing the research content and the assumption that were central to the research. And finally, local wisdom  can be used in daily life.
Local Wisdom In Kampung Naga Tasikmalaya  
Generally, local values in society of Kampung Naga is the combination between Sundanese culture and Islam. People in Kampung Naga maintain the tradition of Sundanese values in order all the the community are Moslem. According to Kuncen, the leader  of Kampung Naga, said that all the people in Kampung Naga are Moslem. This can be seen of Mosque which is located in the centre of the village. Beside that, all the children are going to read the Al Quran every in the evening. The people do special ceremony whenever harvest is coming. It means that the villagers of Kampung Naga respected to the God called Dewi Sri.The Lebe is named Ma’un also added that although people in Kampung Naga belief of the super natural trust, but they are Moslem and it is kind of heritage culture from the ancestor habit.
The local wisdom in Kampung Naga, needs a deep contemplation, so that it can be rationally understood. Of all the investigation of local wisdom, many of them do not involve rational thinking. They just explain about myth which is reflected into custom, proverb, and traditional ceremony.
This study is conducted based on the assumption that local wisdom in society is expressed in the form of belief and mythology, such as activity, traditional ceremony, and norm. It also expresses in term of the utilization of environment in order to avoid disaster. Traditional ceremony which is regularly held and the prohibition which is made become a relaxation to receive what nature given. This prohibition is very effective to adapt and mitigate disaster.
To maintain the local wisdom, it is often introduced the term “taboo” or prohibition which means something that cannot be done by the local society or visitors who come to their area. In Naga, for instance, the visitors are not allowed to take something from forbidden forest (hutan larangan atau hutan Keramat). This prohibition is applied for both Naga society (daily) and visitors. Prohibition in custom society is one of effective way in controlling the society from various deviations coming from both insides and outside.
According to Hermawan, (2012) states that local wisdom is similar to belief, understanding or knowledge, and common practice or ethic, which guide human to behave in ecology community. Indigenous knowledge involves common practice, knowledge, perception, norm, and culture that should be obeyed, and it transmits from one generation to another generation The form of local wisdom, in this case, can be seen from knowledge system, social system, and cultural system which is represented from environment management, customs that arrange society relationship, and the result of artifact culture such as land used; house material and architecture; the design and style of dress, utensils, and ceremony. The value of local wisdom are formed through education process and it started from their family. Environment also has a great influence to set up  the character building of people in Kampung Naga. To every individual, a society is a place where indigenous education takes place, therefore it is a place where there is the ability to adapt and interact with the environment where they live. It is also called as education praxis that resulted into non formal education the life long education concept.
The learning process is either intended based on life experiences. The person be able to interpret life experiences is that individual who attained education.
Based on the information and data researcher gained, not only observation but also interview, people in Kampung Naga have wish to think pattern and behavior as a result of unique local wisdom education. Their education toward the value of local wisdom. Living together side by side for each and together with the nature gives understanding the balances of life. Human and nature have the rules that should be obeyed to avoid something happened. It means that human process of learning culture value through acculturation and internalization.
Local wisdom as the basic the way of think and behave and it is reflected in daily life at society, manage the jungle as the partner of life. People in Kampung Naga also has a simple life patterns, sense of together good space for living and respect to Dewi Padi.
The customary institution function as informal social control in the process of inheriting and realizing the local wisdom value in life aspects. The leader called as Pa Kuncen becomes the only prominent figure and also leader in the village. These means that Kuncen has the obligation and responsible to inherit the local wisdom values for generation to the young generation.
Local wisdom inherent in society life, in which good values in local wisdom is expressed in traditional ceremony, layout, cloth, settlement, and another cultural forms. These wisdom values become the sublime culture of either society or nation, and therefore it should be socialized into several ways which one of them is through habitual . The local wisdom occurred and developed
of all the investigation of local wisdom, many of them do not involve rational thinking. They just explain about myth which is reflected into custom, proverb, and traditional ceremony.
This study is conducted based on the assumption that local wisdom in society is expressed in the form of belief and mythology, such as activity, traditional ceremony, and norm. It also expresses in term of the utilization of environment in order to avoid disaster. Traditional ceremony which is regularly held and the prohibition which is made become a relaxation to receive what nature given. This prohibition is very effective to adapt and mitigate disaster. Meanwhile, traditional ceremony, layout, and another behavior which is showed in artifact culture became another characteristic.
The form of local wisdom, in this case, can be seen from knowledge system, social system, and cultural system which is represented from environment management, customs that arrange society relationship, and the result of artifact culture such as land used; house material and architecture; the design and style of dress, utensils, and ceremony.
To maintain the local wisdom, it is often introduced the term “taboo” or prohibition which means something that cannot be done by the local society or visitors who come to their area. In Naga, for instance, the visitors are not allowed to take something from forbidden forest (hutan larangan atau hutan Keramat). This prohibition is applied for both Naga society (daily) and visitors. Prohibition in custom society is one of effective way in controlling the society from various deviations coming from both insides and outside.
Layout
The use of land in Kampung Naga is divided into three areas: forest, village, and rice filed. Forest is located in west and east. The west side of Kampung Naga is bounded by street, and there is a hill covered by sacred forest, called Leweung Keramat. This forest should not be used, it is left naturally. Forest is considered as a sacred place since the is a grave of Sembang Eyang Dalam Singaparna (an ancestor of Kampung Naga society) Leweung Keramat is believed as a source of holiness and goodness. It is expected that Leweung Keramat can bring the kindness to the village through some scared buildings, such as Bumi Ageng (a place to keep heirloom and masque). Simply said, Bumi Ageung, Mosque, and gathering place stay between Leweung Karamat and village.
Meanwhile, the east side of Kampung Naga is bounded by Ciwulan river, and there is a hill covered by forest, called leuwueng biuk/larangan. Every people are not permitted to take something from this forest, expect for holy activity or taking a bath in traditional ceremony. However, they can only take something outside the forest. They may not come inside. The reason is the negative atmosphere in Leweung Larangan, in which there are many apparitions there. Thus, Kampung Naga people are not allowed to come inside the forest.
Kampung Naga village is divided into three blocks (zones). The first zone is clean zone. It is located on the middle of Kampung Naga. It consists of house, mosque, place to keep rice (leuit), and public building. Second zone is dirty zone. It is located on the right side of the village. It consists of toilet, livestock, saung lisung, and a large pond in front of the village. The last zone is open space. It is located on the south side of the village. It has a function as a breaker with dirty zone.
Houses
Settlement is built on sloping land around 27, with terraces system. Housing is arranged to be 6 floors or sengkedan. Each floor or sengkedan consists of 15 to 21 houses, depending on the vast of the land. The wall of the house is hold with stones which is neatly arranged and glued by the clay. From one sengkedan to another sengkedan is connected by stones stairs. Due to land limitation, the number of housing in Kampung Naga is not developed. House architecture form one house to another is similar, in term of direction, size, and material. All of these have been organized by customary law, and the society does not want to break this custom. For those who want to have a house from wall and modern utilities, they can build it outside Kampung Naga. This condition becomes the form of social tolerance, in which simplicity and utility become typical character of Kampung Naga that does not fade by the time.
House should be built from bamboo and wood. The form is similar like stage. The direction of the house is similar, which is west and east. The front side of the house faces in north or east. The floor of the house is also made from bamboo (palupuh), and a roof is made from palm leaves or tepus leaves. The pole and house is generally builtt based on the knockdown system, without nails or another modern utility.
House becomes the center of life that is why building a home need some consideration which is appropriate with belief value. The home shape is rectangular with size 5 × 8 meter, and it should be stage house. There is wood or bamboo
Belief and Traditional Custom
Kampung Naga people are Moeslem. Religion ceremonies done are: (1) desolating as meant of self-reflection. It is done every Tuesday, Wednesday, and Saturday. On these days, tourist may not come to Kampung Naga. (2) hajat sasih, bebersih, as a means to meet Sa Naga (the descendant of Kampung Naga people who those who lives outside) and Kampung Naga society (3) Marriage and another ceremony in accordance with Moslem. Prohibition (taboo) should be obeyed without any reasons. Therefore, the society do not know of why they should do and do not do something. Following the ancestor become the only reason of why they should follow some rules. The law of cause and effect is believed as a consequence they should be received if they break the rules.

Livelihood
Kampung Naga society lives from farming, by cultivating the field and huma (tegalan). Agriculture land is located in the north and south side of the village. Field is very supported with a good irrigation, rainfall, and equipped technical irrigation, so that it can be plant through the year. Although the agriculture system is subsistent, food crisis have not occurred in Kampung Naga. Paddy has both economical and magical value. The reason is that rice becomes the main food which supports the life. Planting paddy is a must, even though it can combine with other types of paddy. Planting paddy is treated as people, Dewi Sri, who should be appreciated through several ceremonies. Big paddy planting season is 6 month. It is meant that one year can be harvested twice. Paddy is taken with ani-ani (entem) and tied up in the form of geugeusan. It is then put in leuit, which is located outside the house. Paddy that has been pounded into rice is put in certain room, namely padaringanor goah. The last paddy taken will be made into 7 eundan or paddy mother. It will become stock, and will be kept until several years.
Knowledge System
Knowledge system is manifested in the forms of ideas, value, norms, rules, etc., and it cannot be touched. Cultural form of an idea stays on the mind. The realization of idea can be seen from proverb, norm, and ethics which become guideance for society to behave. Knowledge system can be seen in the form of proverb and life philosophy, such given in the following:
Teu saba, teu boga, teu banda, teu weduk teu bedas, teu gagah, teu pinter (do not go anywhere, do not have any wealth, do not have physical strength, and is not smart)
Panyaura ngancang temonan, pamundut gancang caosan, parentah gancang lakonan. It means that if you have an invitation, you should quickly go. If you have a request, you should quickly fulfill it, and if you have a command, just do it quickly.
Therefore, Kampung Naga society maintains their nature for their survival and their descendant survival.
Stratification in Kampung Naga
Description: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Ynim8MxPkxA/U1nGnrNsorI/AAAAAAAAAn4/OuaiB0fAPis/s1600/dd.jpg
Ficture 1: Stratification in Kampung Naga
Kuncen is the leader of the village. He is responsible for maintaining over whole of local wisdom and heritages. At this time, The name of the leader is Ade Suherlin.
Lebe is the one who incharge of spiritual ceremonies.
Punduh is someone who has job as ngurus laku meres gawe, means responsible for keep watching the rules and regulation in Kampung Naga.
Conclusion
Generally, according to the research conclusion, it is known that educational value entiled in local wisdom in Kampung Naga is the way of thinking and behavior as a conformity and obedient toward local wisdom. They use and preserve the environment, maintaining harmony between life needs and environment requirements. Local wisdom  is combining of culture value with Islam and it reflected in proverb and life philosophy teu saba, teu banda teu boga, teu wedus teu bedas, teu gagah teu pinter, dan amanat ti kolot sacekap-cekapna sakieu wae (do not go anywhere, do not have any wealth, do not have physical strength, and it is not smart, that is all). Educational value is reflected in informal and non formal education started from their family with the proverb : parentah gancang lakonan panyaur geura temonan, pamundut gancang caosan (order and request should be done immediately, whenever is called, come immediately, and the rule must be implemented. Educational value entiled in local wisdom should be reflected by non formal and informal education started from their families and environment. The customary is the managing and quality controller of the local values so each individual in Kampung Naga has the responsibility and it is compulsory to self actualizes the local values in daily activities.
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Curriculum Vitae
Full Name                   : Prof. Dr. Endang Komara, M.Si
Date of birth               : Purwakarta 19st July 1964
Occupation                  : Lecturer at the Magister of Social Studies STKIP Pasundan Indonesia
Religion                       : Islam
Marital Status              : Married
Education                    : Doctoral Program (S3), Social Science from Padjadjaran University
                                      (UNPAD), 2003
Address                       : Jl Jati Indah IV No 6 RT 9 RW 10 Kelurahan Gumuruh Kecamatan
                                      Batununggal Kota Bandung 40275 Indonesia
Email                           : endang_komara@yahoo.co.id
Website                       : www.endangkomarasblog.blogspot.com.
Contact                       : 08122010150

Full Name                   : Saeful Rahman
Date of birth               : Bandung 31st August 1974
Occupation                  : Teaching at Laboratorium Senior High School UPI Bandung
Religion                       : Islam
Marital Status              : Married
Education                    : Post Graduated Studies (M.Pd) from STKIP Pasundan Cimahi (2017)
                                      Sarjana Degree (S-1) English Dept. UPI Bandung (1997)
Address                       : Jl. Dr. Setiabudhi Blk 111 Bandung
e-mail                          : saefulrahman1974@gmail.com
Contact                       : 081 321 2424 97